Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Microsoft Corporation Marketing Strategy Marketing is an integral part in an organization; when devising the marketing strategy to adopt marketing managers need to understand the target market of their commodities. Different products are likely to have a number of customers in different parts of the world; marketers need to segment the market and decide the specific area, age-gap, economic status, and the social well being of the market to focus on.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Microsoft Corporation Marketing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Market segmentation is a marketing approach where managers establish their market segments or focus market: focus market is a homogenous subset of the main market, which share similar characteristics that make then demand/require similar goods. Whether in the service or good industry, companies need to have effective marketing policies; Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational headquartered in Redm ond, Washington. To sells its products; which are services, the company has enacted effective marketing policy (Anctil, 2008). This paper discusses the marketing approach as adopted by Microsoft. Microsoft Corporation Microsoft Corporation is an international developer, manufacture, supporter, seller, and licenser of a wide range of products and service for the computing industry. Although the company is located in the United States, it fetches its market from different parts of the globe; with the wide market the company has an aggressive marketing team. The company was initially incorporated to sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800 on 04th 1975 however with innovationa dn invention, the company advanced its services to market MSDOS in the mod 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. some of the competitors that the company has to contend with include IBM and Apple Inc. Describe the main line of business of the company Microsoft Corporation manufactures and sells operating systems for information comm unication gadgets like computers and laptops; currently the company has five main products divisions as Microsoft Business Division, Windows Windows Live Division, Online Services Division, Server and Tools, and Entertainment and Devices Division. Names four of the countries in which the company operates Microsoft operates in the following nations: United States, United Kingdom, China, and South Africa.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Marketing Mix for Microsoft With the similarities of a market segment, an organization is able to develop effective marketing strategy where focus shifts to devising the correct method to sell and address the needs of the target market. One common method in contemporary business environment to strategize for target market sales is the use of marketing mix (marketing mix looks into four main areas of the established market as price, p romotional, places, and product). In a nutshell, a marketing mix is meant to ensure that products are well promoted to customers, they are available when required by customers and they have a price that reflect the quality of the products/services must add value to consumers/users. Competition Although Microsoft Corporation is a leading developer, seller, and marketer of operating systems, the company has a number of competitors which include IBM, Apple, and Google, Linux Operating System, Mozilla, and Opera. To cub competition the company always improves its products with time. Target market Target market refers to the specific class of people with certain homogenous characteristics that a company focus on; After developing a marketing segment, Microsoft next step is to develop mechanisms to enable sales in the target market. Microsoft target market are manufactures and users of electronic gadgets that use their operating systems; to sell to the market, the company ensures its has an effective marketing campaign. For instance when selling to computer manufacturers, the management uses word of mouth to sell the products. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s effective marketing mix ensures that goods are available to the target customer, when they need them and they are affordable. Having the marketing segment in mind, then the company can know the kind of products that will be produced (Campbell, Edgarm Stonehouse, 2011). The following chart shows how a marketing strategy can be developed:Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Microsoft Corporation Marketing Strategy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Product strategy With advancement in information technology, research and development department at Microsoft have taken the initiative of undertaking wide research and coming up with products that are more user friendly and can handle more information transmitted via computers. With the product strategy, the company e nsures that it develops high quality packages are sold to customer; the success of the company is dependent on the quality and reliability of the products; when products are of the right quality and meet the standards of the people, they are likely to be competitive amidst competitor products. When a company is developing a product, there should be the need that the product is supposed to fulfill. The company ensures that it improves one product after the other, for instance since MsDos, there have been other better versions of operation which include window XP, Window Vista, Window 2003, and Window 7. Distribution strategy To reach to the target customers, the company has devised different method to reach the target customer; depending with the products/ the services, the company sells them in disks and over the internet where someone can download and use the services. The method of distribution enables the company to reach its target customers with ease; with the option of downloa ding a software, the company has been able to sell its products in different parts of the world successively (Kotler Denize, 2008). Communication strategy Having products and services is the start point, the company has to ensure that it communicates to the target customer of the existence of the products/services. To undertake this role, Microsoft uses a mixture of approaches. Marketing communication denotes the planned activity of disseminating certain information to a target audience in order to create a favorable and receptive scenario for certain a product, service or idea.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The most basis method that Microsoft adopts is the use of word of mouth; the approach is used for corporate customers where marketers physically sell the products to the companies; with the advent of competitive corporate culture, the relevance and urgency of marketing the method is effective to sell wide range of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s products. According to marketing gurus a well-designed and thoroughly crafted marketing communication strategy can provide a definite competitive advantage to an organization; at Microsoft, the marketing department is given the mandate of determining the best communication strategy that the company should implement. Microsoft marketing department looks at the prevailing corporate scenario, and then c up with the best policy to sell its services (Kotabe Helsen, 2004). Pricing strategy Microsoft sets prices that are competitive in the market and offer maximum returns; it ensures that the products reflect quality it is the policy of the company that pric es set should be attractive to the customers. The cost of services can break or make a company, it is likely to make services/products competitive and convincing the customer to buy them is fast. The company sets its prices using premium pricing approach and price skimming strategy. price skimming strategy and premium pricing approach are pricing methods where a company sets products prices at relatively high prices than that offered by the competitor; the strategy is particularly effective with unique or new products in the market. Price skimming strategy is an approach used by companies with strong brand name in the approach, Microsoft is one such company thus it uses the method to reach to target customers. The company use its name to charge expensively for their goods, as people will believe that they have good services; it also a strategy to capture the high-class people in the economy that think that expensive is quality. The reason for the pricing model and skimming method is because the model rewards a new innovation in a product which conforms to the nature of Microsoft; Microsoft has a strong brand name thus it can effectively use price-skimming strategy. According to marketing theory of brand extension, price-skimming strategy can be an effective method of pricing when the company using it has a strong brand name; Apple falls in the category (Fred, 2008). Describe any differences observed in the implementation of this concept, from one country to another Although Microsoft Corporation has a centralized marketing team, the company takes into account cultural, ethnical, and social-economic differences in different countries. With the above understanding, marketing campaigns are custom-made for different countries. For instance in developing countries where access to computers is limited, the company has concentrated on disk-software sales while in developed countries the company uses downloaded software method. References Anctil, E. (2008). Marketing and Advertising the Intangible. ASHE Higher Education Report, 34(2), 31-47. Campbell, D., Edgar, D.. Stonehouse, G.(2011). Business Strategy: An Introduction. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Fred, D. (2008). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Kotabe, M., Helsen, K.(2004). Global Marketing Management. New York: John Wiley Sons. Kotler, P., Denize, A. (2008). Principles of Marketing. Frenchs Forest NSW: Pearson Education Australia.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Great Depression in America essays The Great Depression is probably one of the most concerning events in American history. It is also proof that capitalism was not a perfect type of government, as everyone believed. The American depression started in a different way than it did in Germany. The Treaty of Versailles was the main event that forced them into depression while a stock market crash was the main event which forced America. Everyone was putting their money into the stock market. People had a large margin to buy stocks with and their credit was up and up. Unfortunately, the only way to from the top, was down. In this case, very down with the stock market crash of October 24, 1929. This infamous day was to be remembered as "Black Thursday". Herbert Hoover has been accused of being a do-nothing president who allowed the country to continue to slide into its worst depression ever. Although Hoover actually did take some action, but that it was too little, too late. Hoover did intervene after the Stock Market crash, but the acts passed by Congress and signed by Hoover were the worst kind of intervention. As he was trying to help, he had made the problem much worse. For example, his most famous mistake was the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act. This act was placed in order to raise tariffs and promote deficit spending. A tariff does exactly the wrong thing, inflation. Other acts passed during Hoover's administration had similar effects of either raising prices or keeping them artificially high when they should have been dropping. All in all, it's not that Hoover was a "do nothing" president, it's that he intervened in exactly the wrong way. Ironically, FDR, the president who put in so many government programs himself, was elected as President after Hoover. He would try to change the government by taking over and changing things to his way. Although, he would try not to adopt the Menshevik, Soviet Union tactics, in doing so. His main c ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Understanding what it means to be a Christian - Essay Example Did Jesus need to be born of a virgin as a condition of his being a savior? Virginity being a very personal and unseen condition, how did the bible determine if this was truth? Speaking of bible and the truth brings us to the third and last topic: does the bible have authority? Is it truly GodÃ¢â¬â¢s word as Christians have been claiming from time immemorial? The classic story of a young boy illustrating the depth of the mystery of the Holy Trinity by attempting to fill a small sand pit with all of the water from the sea depicts the magnitude of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s wisdom and the limits of human understanding. Jesus Christ was known to be the son of God, the only begotten son sent as the sacrificial lamb to save the whole world from the curse of sin by dying on the cross then resurrecting from the dead after three days. This sums Him up as being not only God nor only man but both. As Jesus Christ, he is totally human yet possessing Godly attributes and power setting him apart from ordinary men. His feats prove that He is Ã¢â¬Å"not of this earthÃ¢â¬ baffles the understanding of the people who witnessed him perform miracles and speak with power. Documented in the bible were many statements that concern the deity of Christ. From the old testament to the new testament, prophets have proclaimed his coming or exalted his name in praise. Isaiah, b orn hundreds of years before JesusÃ¢â¬â¢ birth called Him Ã¢â¬Å"The Mighty GodÃ¢â¬ (Isa.. 9:6). Paul was Ã¢â¬Å"looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus ChristÃ¢â¬ (Titus 2:13). Paul also quotes in his teachings an early church doctrinal statement, Ã¢â¬Å"God was manifest in the flesh, justified in the Spirit, seen of angels, preached unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, received up into gloryÃ¢â¬ (1 Tim. 3:16). Jesus himself introduced that He was the son of God, although knowing his metaphoric language, He did not do so directly. He testified that Ã¢â¬Å"Before Abraham was, I
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Sports Manufacturing in India and China - Essay Example Additionally China is developed and has a he population. These would all serve to provide market for the product. The report also recommends that supplier locations be made when examinimg suitable places to invest. Foreign direct investments may be defined as investments that are usually one in a different economy from the investor's and are normally long term. Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) will only be acknowledged as such if the mother company has considerable control over the operations of the foreign company. The UN defined 'considerable control' as the possession of ten percent of the company's shares. They must have the ability to vote and affect decisions within that company.1 Around thirty years ago, foreign direct investment was left to the United States mostly. This was because they had not participated in the Second World War. Consequently, they had some spare resources over and above those ones available to other countries of the world. The dominated this position until the eighties. Some Asian countries began emerging and by the nineteen nineties, China was recognized as one of the not influential lucrative markets for foreign direct investments. India is also another emerging economy and is also considered as one of the most lucrative countries to invest in. A survey conducted by Kearney in 2005 found that China was the best destination for foreign direct investment. The second nation was India and The US came in at a distant third. The statistics also testify to these findings. In the year 2006, China's FDI surmounted to a whooping 18.5 billion dollars and this was an increase of almost six percent. In relation to that, China authorized about twelve thousand seven hundred new companies to be created in the country. Additionally, there were about eight hundred and thirty seven million dollars that were put invested in China by American investors. This goes to show that the environment in China and India is quite favorable for investment. 2 2.0 Description of an imaginary sports manufacturing company 2.1 Product Sports manufacturing companies have numerous ranges of products which they can produce. Some of these include tennis rackets, rugby balls, soccer balls, cricket equipment, bowling balls and many others. However, for purposes of this report, there will be more emphasis on the manufacture of bowling balls. Bowling balls come in different varieties. They are usually differentiated by the sort of materials that are used to make them. Some may be made out of polyester while others may be made of other chemical elements such as Urethane. These varieties could be use as product segments by the imaginary company. The products must also be superior to the rest; quality assurance. Bowling ball manufacture requires consistent and creative use of technology in the production process. There are always new methods of production that are entering the market on a daily basis. Consequently, there is a need to ensure that one's company is well informed about these production processes and that they can implement them a soon a possible. Superior bowling balls are normally maintained by creative engineers. Therefore the imaginary company is characterized by a solid and reliable research and development team. 3 The imaginary company also has to make sure that it lays produce products that are consistent in nature. This means that
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Maguindanao Massacre Essay Stories and worldwide condemnation of the Maguindanao massacre still grapple the Filipino people in disbelief. Focusing on the victims that include lawyers and journalists in the company of scions of a political clan, the manner of mass execution was the most gruesome, so animalistic, and the most barbaric act of the new century. Fifty-seven of them, men, women, and children were killed and decapitated; bodies were mangled and riddled with bullets. This satanic act was allegedly masterminded by the incumbent mayor of the place, who is said to have been able to command and give orders as he pleases even to the extent of a massacre. The idea of good governance, rule of law of human rights and democracy has hardly been heard in existence in this far-flung poor province in Mindanao. Politicians are motivated to run for public office to absolutely control and influence the civilians and the police. The existing system is heavily politicized making the police underdogs of the politicians. Thus, anybody who wants to seek justice feels the absence of any protection mechanism. Government tried to calm the situation by asking the allegedly mass murderer to surrender; but will his victims get justice? Praying for justice to prevail in this country, Lasallians were called to express indignation to this assault to humanity. Students wore black ribbons on their chest to sympathize with the victims and their loved ones, and to shout and rage against the inhuman act. They lit candles and prayed for peace, and were in one in expressing the gloom and grief the whole country has experienced. We call on the wheels of justice to move swiftly without deception of wealth and power. Otherwise, record of inhumanity of the sadistic, brutal, and cruel Maguindanao massacre may be enhanced when the Government still fails to mete out the punishment for the perpetrators.
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Death of Woman Wang, by Jonathan Spence is an educational historical novel of northeastern China during the seventeenth century. The author's focus was to enlighten a reader on the Chinese people, culture, and traditions. Spence's use of the provoking stories of the Chinese county T'an-ch'eng, in the province of Shantung, brings the reader directly into the course of Chinese history. The use of the sources available to Spence, such as the Local History of T'an-ch'eng, the scholar-official Huang Liu-hung's handbook and stories of the writer P'u Sung-Ling convey the reader directly into the lives of poor farmers, their workers and wives. The intriguing structure of The Death of Woman Wang consists on observing these people working on the land, their family structure, and their local conflicts. Chapter one, The Observers, in the Death of Woman Wang demonstrates the accuracy of the local historian; Feng K'o-ts'an, who compiled The Local History of T'an-ch'eng in 1673. The descriptive context of the Local History helps the reader to understand and literally penetrate into people's lives. The use of records of the earthquake of 1668, the White Lotus rising of 1622 and rebels rising vividly described by Feng the extent of suffering the people of T'an-ch'eng went through. Jonathan Spence stresses on how miserable the two-quarter of the seventeen-century were to the diminishing population of the county. The earthquake claimed the lives of nine thousand people, many others died in the White lotus rising, hunger, sickness and banditry. P'u Sung-ling's stories convey that after the loss of the wheat crops there were cases of cannibalism. On top of all of this came the slaughtering of the entire family lines by the bandits. The incredible records of women like Yao and Sun in the Loca l History present the reader the magnitude of savagery the bandits possessed. All of these factors led to the rise of suicides. The clarity of events Spence given to the reader is overwhelming. On the other hand, Spence losses his reader as he introduces the spread of Confucius and other superstitious believes through out the county. He states that the Local History states that people became unusually superstitious in parts of T'an-ch'eng. Later on he presents the Confucianism and it influence. Confusion especially occurs then he quotes from many different sources and chapters. For inst... ... to the husband. Yet the reader is presented with woman Wang, who ran away with another man from her husband, Jen. Some of the reasons of her departure could have been neglect from her husband, that she had bound feet and that she had no children. Her actions contradicted any moral wife at that time. After relentless pursuit of happiness woman Wang returned home, there she met her death. The Legal Code justified certain parameters of vengeance on behave of the husband toward his adulterous wife. Nevertheless, Jen was not allowed by the law to simply slaughter his wife. Moreover Jen accused an innocent Kao, for which Jen could have been sentenced to death. Were woman Wang's actions right is for the reader to decide. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ultimately, The Death of Woman Wang, by Jonathan Spence is a timeless, educational, historical novel. Spence purpose to enlighten the reader of the Chinese culture, tradition and its land were met through the use of sources, like the Local History of T'an-ch'eng, the scholar-official Huang Liu-hung's handbook and stories of the writer P'u Sung-Ling. The intriguing structure of The Death of Woman Wang will captivate any reader's attention.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The end of the Civil War brought opportunities and disadvantages for many Americans depending on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race, ethnicity and abilities. Chapters seventeen through twenty of Ã¢â¬Å"The American NationÃ¢â¬ explains the changes which occurred in American society post civil war due to industrialism. The following essay examines the barriers created by an inefficient government causing discrimination of the poor in the mid-to-late 1800s. Severe discrimination of minorities and the poor led to a corrupt American government working only to benefit themselves and important wealthy voters.Congress used bribery to ensure their financial needs were met while those of American citizens were ignored. Many tactics were uses to ensure Congress remained Republican, such as criticizing Democrats as rebels and using the Ã¢â¬Å"bloody shirtÃ¢â¬ as a reminder of the violence and untrusting nature of Democrats during the Civil War (449). Many Americans were distrustful of Congress, and with go od reason. An example of such distrust was seen in Americans desire for American currency to be changed from paper money back to bullion because they feared government would print as much money as necessary to cover an increase or decrease in taxes (450).Civil service reform was a concern during the post Civil War era but the barriers were immense (450). There were many factors contributing to the need for civil service reform. There was a long list of ineffective presidents and the hiring of unqualified lieutenants by politicians because of their involvement in the Civil War. In order to keep their congressional status, politicians needed loyal employees and by celebrating AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s patriots, they were adding on votes to ensure their success.As the author wrote in Ã¢â¬Å"The American NationÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"patronage was the lifeblood of politicsÃ¢â¬ (451); basically politicians bribed soldiers with high paying jobs and preferential treatment in return for their votes. Refo rmers wanted nonpartisan professional civil service and both democratic and republican politicians made a mockery of them (451). Although the Reconstruction era looked promising for AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s black men and women, it quickly became a failure. Minorities were treated very poorly postwar.One ineffective president, President Hayes, could have made a difference in the lives of black Americans, but when President Hayes realized his hopes were useless, he did not pursue the problem further (451). Poll taxes created an Ã¢â¬Å"economic barrierÃ¢â¬ to blacks an poor whites and the Fifth Amendment was not upheld for blacks (451). The literacy tests for the right to vote were rigged for illiterate whites and not for illiterate blacks; giving white votes the majority. Because blacks were treated as stupid and inferior, white law makers felt it was okay to restrict their rights.Rather than improving American society by addressing equal rights and liberties, congress spent their time mak ing sure the rich and the white succeeded by restricting the rights of others who could get in the way. The Civil Rights Cases (1883) and Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) gave way to legalized segregation laws in schools, prisons, hospitals and anywhere public services were available. The only way blacks found success was through separatism, where they established communities of their own, and financially supporting the community through black business ownership (453).Blacks were forced to make Ã¢â¬Å"the choice between confrontation and accommodationÃ¢â¬ (454). Immigrants suffered as well, they were seen as a drain on society and were accused of taking the jobs of other Americans because of their cheap labor (454). Immigrants rushed to America with the rise of industry and manufacturing, yet they could only afford the slums where disease and violence were abundant. This gave them a bad reputation and therefore Americans demanded laws be made to protect their jobs and money from immigra nts.The Plains Indians were removed from their land and many violent attacks caused the death of thousands of Indians. White influence threatened to take culture away from the Indians, as Indians began buying new technologies from Americans. White man wanted to civilize the Indians by passing the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 which was a promise of education and some land which resulted in the Indians loss of culture and tax increases on land resulting in a loss of land (462). American greed such as seen during the gold rush, trampled on the lives of the Indians.Rich, powerful industrial leaders took away land for railroad development, killing of the tribesÃ¢â¬â¢ food source and killing off most of the Indians (462). Wealth rose among the business tycoons but not for the average American citizen. It was a kill or be killed society. As population increase, food and transport demand also increased, bringing wealth to industry giants (472). Government was so ineffective in creating reg ulations for businesses that many business owners took it upon themselves to fix things, such as seen with the oversupply of cows.However, the ranchers for the most part destroyed their businesses by unintentionally killing their cows with barbed wire fences (473). The exploitation of natural resources brought expansion to American manufacturing, farmers were getting replaced and they lost the respect of many Americans and the government did nothing to help (477). The rise of new and competing technologies made businesses and their products quickly become obsolete (487). Lowering product prices to in order to compete with similar companies caused job loss and other problems in society.Mergers took place without any government regulations and peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ jobs were very unstable. The government tried to get their act together by creating business regulations, such as the Sherman Act, which were essentially ineffective (495). Labor unions caused more strikes and violence than actua l assistance for workers. Employees were in constant distress from more skilled workers taking over jobs, employers who could throw them out at any time and union opportunities met with employer disapproval (498). Wealth was unevenly distributing to only a few and the few became smaller with every year (500).The wealthy business owners held ordinary citizens fates in their hands because their money controlled the government and the court systems (500). The middle class society benefited from big businesses and lived well and extremely wasteful (505). New technologies caused many workers the inability to keep up with the needed skills and once new schools and colleges were opened many college grads got the jobs while both male and female unskilled industrial workers suffered low wages and could not live decently (505).The uneven balance of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth can be demonstrated through the type of work women maintained. Although all women were paid less; middle class women worke d as nurses teachers and lower class as sales and cashier clerks (505). Stability was a problem; middle class workers saved money if their jobs were not stable where stable workers would spend their money (507). Social culture was important to the rich and middle class but the poor were discriminated against enjoying such privileges (516). Even the church discriminated against the poor.Protestants were the only ones to take a step in the right direction and help the poor improve their lives, not with charity but with reform (524). Socialist ideals became popular towards the turn of the century likely because of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to help all Americans and not just themselves and other wealthy citizens. Society wanted to see welfare, unemployment benefits, nationalizing industries, public housing and many other beneficial programs for the needy and equal opportunities for all Americans (524).
Sunday, November 10, 2019
This essay will talk on the definition of privilege and dominance, the application and importance of anti-oppressive practice and the theoretical frame work of ThompsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Personal, Cultural and Structural (PCS) models of oppression, BurnhamÃ¢â¬â¢s social Ã¢â¬ËGRRAACCEESSÃ¢â¬â¢ and FookÃ¢â¬â¢s Micro and Macro approaches. It will also cover my reflection on the article Ã¢â¬ËTo Address Privilege and DominanceÃ¢â¬â¢ and how it influences my social work practice and a reflection on challenges that might arise in my practice.Bailey (1998:109) defines privilege as Ã¢â¬Ësystematically conferred advantages individuals enjoys by virtue of their membership in dominant groups with access to resources and institutional power that are beyond the common advantages of marginalised citizensÃ¢â¬â¢. Tillner (1997:2) defines dominance as Ã¢â¬Ëa form of identity practice that constructs a difference which legitimises dominance and grants the agent of dominance the illusion of a s uperior identityÃ¢â¬â¢. Anti-oppressive practice is the cornerstone of ethical social work practice.It is very important and central to learning in social work practice how to challenge the focused abuse of power and mistreatment of others using specific legislation where applicable and to consider the particular disadvantages resulting from a precise social difference. Dominelli (2002:36) denotes that Ã¢â¬Ëanti-oppressive practice addresses the whole person and enables the practitioner to relate to his or her clientÃ¢â¬â¢s social context in a way that takes account of the Ã¢â¬Ëallocative and authoritativeÃ¢â¬â¢ that both the practitioner and the client bring to the relationship.Thus, anti oppressive practice takes on board personal, institutional, cultural and economic issues and examines how this impinges on individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and opportunities to develop their full potentials as persons living within collective entitiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Parker (2007) states that anti -discriminatory approaches highlight disadvantage by association experienced by people with whom social workers practise as the discrimination is directly related to the particular characteristics identified within the legislation.Parker (2007) further explains that anti-oppressive pursue to change systems that upholds the status quo at the expense of carers, service users disadvantaged or marginalised people due to their social division and statuses. Thompson (2006) identifies three levels that can make us better understand the ways oppression or discrimination works in society. These are Personal, Cultural and Structural (PCS) models of oppression. The personal or psychological level is concerned with an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s thoughts, feelings, views, attitudes and actions towards a particular group, person, race, gender, sexuality, religion or community.The cultural level centres on Ã¢â¬Ëshared ways of seeing, thinking and doingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Thompson, 2009). That is: cultural levels of interaction within society and shared ways of seeing, thinking and doing, the same values and patterns of thought and behaviour, conformity to social norms and humour as a vehicle for transmitting and reinforcing culture. Culture is also very influential in determining what is regarded as Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ in any given circumstance. The structural level refers to the network of social divisions and power relations that are so closely associated with them.It also relates to the way in which oppression and discrimination are Ã¢â¬Ësewn inÃ¢â¬â¢ to the fabric of society or institutionalise. It also relates to the level of social forces; Ã¢â¬Ëinterlocking patterns of power and influenceÃ¢â¬â¢. Hugman (2009:1142) notes that Ã¢â¬ËFooks approach shows how working at the micro level can be informed by structural understandings of the causes of social needsÃ¢â¬â¢. Micro pertains to individual, domestic unit and small groups whilst macro relates to community, organisation a nd policies.It is important to work with macro minded in micro practice as most difficulties faced by service users can easily be identified at that level. Burnham (2005) claims that power and privilege relates to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s gender, race, religion, age, ability, class, culture, creed, ethnicity, education sexuality and sexual orientation. Hence, social workers need to understand their own identities in order to understand the identity of service users. This will facilitate better interaction and good engagement. The aspect of the article that stood out for me is the privileges or advantages enjoyed by males.If we look back in history of time we will see that woman have come a very long way fighting for equality. It is obvious that men enjoy certain privileges based on the fact that they are males as compared to their female counterparts. There are other informed observations that propose that the male dominance in present day society is a function of culturally-installed patriarchy that not only favours men but also oppresses women in society. Robinson (2003) claims that patriarchy enthusiasts would argue that society enjoys most benefit because of male dominance and our respective gender roles.Feminist philosophers and activist are quick to point out the great suffering women have experienced over the years and the discrimination they faced every day in present day society. It is a truism that woman have suffered over the years and are still suffering today due to some aspects of male privilege and dominance in society. It will be of great help to the society if social workers focus on the visible and invisible mechanisms of power, privilege, and influence that males have over females. This will be of great help to fight against inequality and other social ills.There are privileges that that come to some people simply because of the fact that they are males. For example, it will be very difficult for a man be discriminated at his place of work on the ground of his sex. Most females are and have been discriminated against on the ground of their sex. To add to the above, men are paid higher than women doing the same job especially if the employer knows that the man has a family. During recruitment, some employers are very reluctant to recruit female workers as they are concerned that she will need time off for maternity, time to take her child to the hospital and other family commitment.Most service users will do what they are asked to do by a male social worker as compared to a female social worker due to the fact that they are male. Most service users especially when it comes to child protection will be more confrontational and verbal with females as compared to males. I have worked with cases that when it came to difficult and confrontational service users, the cases where transferred to male social workers. As soon as the cases were transferred to a male social worker the service userÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards the male soc ial worker changed.Another aspect in the article that stood out for me is the privileges enjoyed by heterosexual couples over same sex or gay couple. I have a friends and colleagues who are lesbians and they will remind from time to time that I should understand they are lesbians and it is extremely difficult for them to kiss or hold hands in public like heterosexual couples. I have also worked with service users that are gays and lesbians and I have to always remember to use the term partner when I am referring to their boyfriend or girlfriend.They have also explained to me that they do not feel free to communicate with colleagues or people because they feel that they will not be taken serious or they will be perceived as social misfits. The above mentioned facts about privilege and dominance will certainly influence my social work practice in a positive way. Social work is a profession that provide help and valuable support to people who are facing some forms of oppression and soc ial exclusion and other social ills. It is very essential that social workers empathise with service users as they are in the position of power whilst the service users may sometime feel powerless.It should be recommended that much work be done in order to bridge the gap between male and female. The work should be centred towards extending privilege, power, dominance and influence to women. Men also need to assess themselves in order to address the concerns of open oppression of women. This could also include talks and seminars on issues like domestic violence, workplace disparity and other issues related to gender equality. It will ease communication and understanding when a social worker explains to service users their concerns and what they will do in order to address the concern.Some service users believe that social workers are baby snatchers, community police, a tool for the upper class, a control mechanism and in such situations service users can become abusive and confrontat ional. Social workers need to explain the reasons for their visit and what they will do and what they will not do. This will enable service users and other family members to engage with social workers. Worthy of mention is the fact that social workers should be aware of the area of privilege and dominance and as they can discuss this with people who enjoy certain privileges as a way forward.For example, always hold conversation with men about the privileges enjoyed by them. As a social worker you have to be aware of the challenges that you might face whilst trying to address the issue of privilege and dominance. Advocacy is a means of emancipation and it is often not easy to advocate for certain group of people. It might be very difficult for information to penetrate some communities. Again, some people use religion as a defence for not accepting other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s values, sexuality and religious in society.The fact that social workers need to be polite, speak cautiously and prof essionally at all times might lead to some service users taking them for granted. It is of immense importance for social workers to reflect on the issue of privilege and dominance as they work with service users who have been marginalised or oppressed. This will serve as emancipatory given the fact that the lack of critical reflection on the privileged flank of social division permits members of dominant group to strengthen their dominance. This will enable social workers to best understand issues revolving around privilege, dominance, power and influence.A good understanding of these issues will pave a good way for social workers to work better with service users and also instigate change when and where it is needed. Reference Bailey, A. (1998) Ã¢â¬ËPrivilege: Expanding on Marilyn FryÃ¢â¬â¢s oppressionÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Social Philosophy. 29, 3: 104-119. Dominelli. L. (2002) Anti-Oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice. London: Palgrave Macmillan Hugman, R. (2009) But is i t Social Work? Some Reflection of Mistaken Identities. British Journal of Social Work, 39, 1139-1153. Parker, J. (2007) Social Work, Disadvantage by Association and Anti-Oppressive Practice. In P.Burke and J. Parker. (eds. ) Social Work and Disadvantage: Addressing the Roots of Stigma Through Association, London: Jessica Kingsley. Robinson, M (2003) Gender, Power and Privilege. Charles Pfeffer: WetWare, Inc. Rochester, NY. Tillner, G. (1997) Ã¢â¬ËMasculinity and Xenophobia: The identity of dominanceÃ¢â¬â¢. Paper presented to the UNESCO conference, Masculinity and Male Roles in the Perspective of a Culture of Peace, Oslo, Norway. Thompson, N. (2006) Anti-Discriminatory Practice (2006) 4th ed, Palgrave, Macmillian. Thompson, N. (2009) Promoting equality, valuing diversity. Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing.
Friday, November 8, 2019
The Credit Crunch Essays The Credit Crunch Essay The Credit Crunch Essay Impact of the Credit Crunch; the personal disposable income of consumers is to a large extent determined by the availability of credit and the economic condition. With the current economic and financial situation which has resulted in a general contraction of consumers spending ability, several industries have watched their revenues plummet. Businesses in general are experiencing difficulty in obtaining loans from banks for major investments and expansions due to the unavailability of credit and tighter credit conditions. Analysis by Ovum (a global advisory and reporting firm) has revealed that the mobile network operators revenue has not been impinged on by the credit crunch. They go on to report that overall, MNOs have seen a steady growth in revenues18. O2 reported a 10% growth in revenues in their 2008 end of year financial statement despite the testing financial times19. Also, a survey carried out by Mintel showed that although consumers were pessimistic about the condition of the economy, a large percentage was not willing to cut costs on their mobile phone usage. Their results disclosed that only 12% of their research respondents were looking to switch network for cheaper deals20. Subsequent analysis by Ovum in December 2008 showed that network operators may actually begin to feel the impact of the financial crises on their revenue. Also, with interest rates which have taken a nose-dive- from 5. 25% in February 2008 to 0. 5% at March 2009 after several cuts by the Bank of England, and the quantitative easing policy1 that has been implemented, it is expected that consumers will have more access to credit, and spending will be encouraged. O2 reported that its revenues were up by 7% in the first three months of 200921.Ã Times have changed. About 25 years ago in the UK, everyone survived without owning and using a mobile phone. However, in this present time, mobile phones have without a doubt formed a huge part of our lives as the need for communication is increases. Mobile phones serve many great purposes to users; necessary contacts can easily and promptly be accessed in an emergency, business users are able to carry out their businesses more swiftly amongst other uses. Consumers have stated that they own and value their mobile phones for both functional reasons such as convenience, personal safety, security and business and also less practical reasons such as fashion and style22. As well as increasing need for communication, an ongoing trend is increasing impatience to receive required information. The UK has become a population constantly on the go and in todays fast moving world more users require information and hope to receive it in very minimal time without much delay23. This is reflected in the innovation and use of the 3G services now offered to users by their network operators. Orange supplied figures which showed that mobile data downloads has increased by 108% in the last three months and their 3G customer base now stands at 3. 8 million users24. With 3G, users have direct access to high speed internet on the go, the ability to retrieve emails, and other required information. This trend does not favour fixed-line services and remains an advantage for network operators. DIY Broadband; in the UK, more and more people have access to high speed net connections. This media age trend has resulted in consumers having the ability to do things themselves; surf the web, compare prices between various network providers and find the most suitable deals. Also, consumers are actively sharing experiences, preferences, pros and cons of different network providers and deals on price comparison and consumer rating sites such as uswitch. With access to faster internet and availability of such useful information, consumers are more aware of what they want and are able compare prices to find the best deals. Consequently, this has ensued in increased competition between providers as they seek to provide the best deal in order to retain customers and attract new ones. This trend has also adversely affected the revenue of providers who are unable to keep up with the high level of competition25. Figure 2: Broadband Penetration in the UK from 2004-2008 Source; Mintel Reports, Mobile Phones and Network Providers UK November 2008. in the UK there are now more people of pensionable age over 60- than people under the age of 16. This consumer group-elderly has been forecasted to be the fastest growing population segment in the next five years as the UK is moves towards an ageing population26. The elderly typically face difficulties with the use of mobile phones such as reading from the small phone screens, incompatibility with hearing aids and increasing complex technology. Although the current over 65s have grown with technology, they generally have low spending ability and as such the ageing population trend may not be favourable to the industry. Nonetheless, this negativity is likely to be offset by the generally expanding UK population, and the increasing population of the 15-24 and 25-34 age groups27. These categories of consumers are more technology-savvy and typically opt for more stylish handsets packed with functionality. These segments therefore present a strategic target group for network operators. A Greener Society;, preventing climate change and saving the environment is a trend affecting most industries around the world but has been reported to be a major issue of concern for the telecoms industry for 200928. Several initiatives implemented by Ofcom aimed at reducing the industrys carbon dioxide emissions include; reducing power consumed by Information Systems, driving down building energy consumption, reducing business travel and increasing use of conferencing technology, further reducing paper consumption and further reducing the volume of waste sent to landfill by encouraging more recycling. Implementing these initiatives is beneficial to the network operators not only because they are doing their bit to save the planet, but because it conveys positive messages about the brand, boosts the brand perception as well as provides a differential advantage from competitors28. Also, with increasing mobile phone users and the need for network operators to improve coverage, more and more masts have being erected around the country. Currently, there are 51 300 base station sites which may rise to 52 500 by the end of 200929. These masts typically consumer a lot of energy and impact negatively on the environment. Subsequently, this has triggered concern by the public and environmental activists. Operators have made efforts to reduce high energy consumption by developing base stations that utilize lower energy levels30.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
When to Walk Away A few years ago I saw an announcement for the Tony Hillerman contest. Named after the great mystery novelist, the contest has very specific rules, including where the novel must take place. The winner receives a publishing contract with St. Martins and a nice advance. With the deadline three months away, I dove in and wrote Wink of an Eye like a madwoman. But forty-thousand words into the manuscript, I realized there was no way I could complete it, have it edited, and polish it for submission in such a short time. I was not going to submit a very rough first draft. So I chucked the contest but kept the manuscript, kept working with it, hoping to submit somewhere, someday. My critique group edited the story, but I wound up shelving the book for a while as I moved on to other projects. Then two years ago at a conference, I had the opportunity to pitch to an agent. The agent loved Wink of an Eye, saying the voice had tremendous potential. But her next words made me blink. Ã¢â¬Å"I know I can sell this to a small press.Ã¢â¬ At the risk of sounding arrogant, I knew I could sell it to a small press. But when the agent told me to send the entire manuscript, excitement urged me to oblige. A week or so later, I received an email from the agency intern saying, yes, she loved it too! But we had a few problems. Good voice, but too much dialogue. Excessive description because it was too visual; per the intern, having readers say they can Ã¢â¬Å"see it as a movieÃ¢â¬ isnt a good thing. Oh, and the beginning had to change. But they loved it and knew it would sell to any number of small presses. I scratched my head at what was supposed to be my big break. A real agent wanted to represent my work. So why wasnt I doing back flips? I went to work on the suggested revisions and soon had several documents named Wink rewrite, Wink rewrite2, Wink rewrite3, and so on . . . until I said enough. Some of the changes I agreed with- like changing a passive verb- but the dialogue and descriptive imagery stayed. This story was my ba So what happened to Wink of an Eye? I submitted it to the St. Martins Press/Minotaur Books Best 1st Private Eye Novel Competition and the darn thing won. With all its dialogue and descriptive imagery and even the occasional passive voice. It will be released November 18, 2014. I knew I had something good, and I stood
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Public administration- delegates - Essay Example With regard to the expertise and experiences of the delegates, almost all of the 55 had actively participated in the revolution despite multiple careers and titles. For instance, some had already served in the Continental forces as commanders whereas some had been members of the Confederation Congress. Among the 55 delegates, some were state governors, members of Continental Congress, and lawyers. The members of the convention also included individuals from every sphere like merchants, manufacturers, shippers, land speculators, bankers or financiers, physicians, farmers etc (AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Founding Fathers). All had extensive knowledge and political experiences, for among the delegates, people like Ã¢â¬ËBaldwin, Bassett, Bedford, Dickinson, Few, Franklin, Ingersoll, Livingston, Alexander Martin, Luther Martin, Mercer, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, Read, Sherman, and WilliamsonÃ¢â¬â¢ had already lived or worked in more than one state or colony (AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Founding Fathers). The level of education also varied and many had good education from British North American colonies or abroad. Another notable aspect was that almost all delegates namely Blair, Butler, Carroll, Houston, Ingersoll, Jenifer, Johnson, Livingston, Mifflin, Gouverneur Morris, Pinckneys, Randolph, Rutledge, Washington, and Wythe were from leading well-to-do families (AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Founding Fathers). The delegates represented various regions; Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North California, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and
Friday, November 1, 2019
The Film Gods not Dead - Essay Example Josh Wheaton, a Christian in college, enrolls for a class of philosophy taught by an atheist Professor, Jeffrey Radisson. The Professor begins his class by listing famous philosophers to show their similarity in belief that God does not exist. In this class, for a student to get the required pass grade, he has to declare through signature that God is dead. This rule is stated by the atheist professor. All the students apart from one, Josh Wheaton, sing the declaration. At this point, josh is at crossroads and has two options to chose from: he should either deny his faith, or chose to fail in this class. It is important that Josh excels in this class if he is to get the entry points to law school. The professor does not just let Josh go. Instead he welcomes him to debate the topic in the presence of the class members who should decide who the winner of the debate is. His arguments should be well researched and he should present them in an intellectual manner. The students go through the first three lectures where the professor invites Josh to convince the class and him that God exists. For the first two debates, Josh does not seem to get any progress as Jeffery counters all his arguments with sensible points of argument. At this point, most of the students including JoshÃ¢â¬â¢ girlfriend Kara try to convince him to either follow JeffreyÃ¢â¬â¢s rules or drop out of the class, after all he does not seem to win the argument.