Wednesday, July 31, 2019
Society has many views on same sex relationships and marriages, people are either for it or against it. In this paper, we will first look at same sex marriage in America and how homosexuals and heterosexuals feel about the issue. We will look into the ethical issue that same sex marriage presents. We will look at how the classical theory of how deontology would resolve the issue of same sex marriage. Next, we will contrast deontology with the perspective of relativism. Finally, we will see which of these views on same sex marriage is closest to my own personal views. The ethical reason behind why people in society believe that same sex marriage is wrong is simply due to discrimination. Society does not have a valid reason why same sex marriage should not be allowed; it is just simply based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own biased reasoning for not allowing it. Same sex marriage is something that people have been fighting for rights for many decades. Andrew Koppelman (2004), celebrated journalist and author, states that Ã¢â¬Å"Most Americans agree with the first sentence of the proposed amendment: Ã¢â¬Å"Marriage in the United States shall consist only of the union of a man and a woman. The main question this raises is whether this rule is important enough to enshrine in the ConstitutionÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). Many Americans can agree that the first sentence of the amendment is broad and that it invalidates domestic partnership laws that allow same sex couples the rights of marriage without the name (Koppelman, 2004). Marriage is not just a word but rather an institution, which the amendment makes impossible for same sex marriage to have the rights to that institution. In 1996, the defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) prevented the federal government from recognizing same sex marriages and allows individual states to have the power to define their own family laws. This allows each individual state to choose whether to ignore the first sentence of the amendment or agree with the first sentence of the amendment when deciding whether or not make same sex marriage legal in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own state. With this being said, a governor can choose to allow same sex marriage in the state they govern; however, when that governorÃ¢â¬â¢s time has lapsed and another person takes over, that person can decide to remove same sex marriage. All of same sex couples that were married in that state are now no longer considered married in the eyes of the law anymore. Also if a same sex couple gets married in their current state that they reside in where same sex marriage is considered legal; then the couple decide to move to another state that does not allow same sex marriage, they are then not considered married in the eyes of the law in the current state that they are now living in (Koppelman, 2004). In The Limits to Union: Same-Sex Marriage and the Politics of Civil Rights, Jonathan Goldberg-Hiller (2002) writes that gay rights activists have been fighting for same sex marriage rights since 1970. In 1990, one gay couple and two lesbian couples applied for a marriage licenses in Hawaii at the department of health, several people in the states made efforts to challenge the marriage laws and were denied. In 1991, the three couples hired a local civil rights attorney proceeded to sue the state circuit court for violations of their rights of privacy and equal protection. The judge ruled that the same sex couples did not enjoy the right to marry, which followed with the couples filing for an appeal in 1993 with the state supreme court. The state supreme court made the first national ruling that rejecting same sex marriage applications was unconstitutional gender discrimination, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t show a state interest. The state at the time felt that not allowing same sex marriages did not uphold moral values and protect children and filed for a motion to reconsider; however, it was rejected in the Supreme Court (Goldberg-Hiller, 2002). Like Hawaii, many same sex couples have fought their state circuit court all the way up to their supreme court and have been fighting for many years to legalize marriage in their state and have been unsuccessful. In 2004, Connecticut, Iowa, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, New York, the District of Columbia and two Native American tribal jurisdictions have legalized same sex marriages. As the years go on, more and more same sex couples will continue to fight for their right to marry who they choose and more states will eventually allow same sex couples their rights to marry whomever they choose (Koppelman, 2004). Those that are oppose same sex marriage focus their reasoning on religious beliefs. Same sex couples do not want to be treated as second class citizens, they do not focus on what religion states; they just want to be treated as equal as heterosexuals when it comes to their right. Same sex couples believe if one is to bar any class of people from marrying whomever they choose, it then deprives them of their social institution; that many feel defines the most meaningful part of life, to marry someone one loves. Same sex couples believe that their relationships are no different than that of a heterosexual marriage. Same sex couples can have maintain a home together, provide an environment that children can thrive in and care for each other the same as heterosexual married couples do (Goldberg-Hiller, 2002). In Attributions and the Regulation of Marriage: Considering the Parallels between Race and Homosexuality, Mark Joslyn and Donald Haider-Markel (2005) writes that for many people, these days, the issue of same sex marriage is an ethical controversy. Same sex relationships have been considered taboo and an ethical issue in many places throughout the United States. Many people oppose same sex marriage and the rights of homosexuals. The future for same sex marriage and civil unions appears to be very bright for legal recognition. Lesbians and gays had major setbacks in 2004 election, however, many feel that was just a speed bump. In Ethics and Social Responsibility, Kurt Mosser (2010) explains that ethics are the concern of what is morally right or wrong to an individual. Ethics is the study of what I ought to do or what should other people do. The philosophy known as ethics forces individuals to consider whether the things we do are right or wrong, good or bad, immoral or moral. Ethical issues have relationships even with religious traditions and legal political doctrines (p. 2). In Marriage, Autonomy, and the Feminine Protest, Debra Bergoffen (1999) explains that the ethical issues and the ethical problems same sex marriage presents is that society feels that if they make same sex marriage legal, the same sex couple would then destroy the meaning of marriage. To society, that meaning of marriage is procreation and the education of children. Procreation is not possible with the same sex, for it takes a man and a woman to make a child. Marriage is considered the ethical site of a couple and a decision people make to maintain a particular way of being. So, society feels that since same sex partners cannot procreate and have children that they should not be able to marry. Some men and women cannot conceive a child and procreate due to medical problems from either the man or woman. Many heterosexual partners, with the help of technology these days, use ways of fertility such as artificial insemination, egg donations, surrogate mothers and adoptions. So procreation is not always feasible with heterosexuals. So the statement of that marriage should be only among man and woman for the sake of procreation is actually unjust. A lesbian couple can then have a child with the help of sperm donation and a gay couple can have a child with the help of surrogacy or adoptions (Joslyn & Haider-Markel, 2005). If heterosexuals have the same issue as homosexuals, in regards to procreation, then one can say ethically it is fair to allow same sex partners to then marry To society, these days it is not uncommon to walk down the street and see a man and man, or woman and woman holding hands and it is considered normal to many Americans. However, to the older generations, they feel that a man and man, or woman and woman should not be together, even though it is a part of society these days; they have a hard time agreeing and understanding same sex relationships. The ethical values of someone from the sixties are going to be different from someone who was brought up in this day and age (Bergoffen, 1999). Ethics allows one to determine what is right and wrong, however, what we consider right or wrong is based on our upbringing and surrounding culture with other theories like deontology, we can see how these ways of life can be incorporated into society. The classical theories of deontology would resolve the problem of same sex marriage. Deontology looks at the reason and rule for why an act was done, instead of the consequences from the act. Deontology focuses on what we are obliged to do as moral human beings. Deontology realizes that all actions have consequences; however, those consequences whether or not actions are ethical should not be determined by the actions consequences. Deontologists feel that people have an obligation or duty to treat other human beings with respect, dignity and take their dignity into consideration when one has to deal with another person, as we expect them to do when someone has to deal with us. One cannot use another person nor can another person use them to get what one wants (Mosser, 2010). Deontological theory of how one should be treated allows same sex couples to be treated as just and fair as heterosexuals are treated. With deontology, people have the right to be who they are and is not fair to outcast others for any reason (Mosser, 2010). With this way of thinking, society should legalize same sex marriages and then all will be treated fairly and justly. When one says that a person cannot marry someone because they are marrying someone of the same sex, as oppose to opposite sex, is not treating someone with respect and dignity. Treating a person this way is instead out casting them as different and who are we to make that judgment in society? Deontology would fix this way of thinking in society, for people would treat same sex couples the same as heterosexual couples, thus allowing people to love and marry who they choose, not who society says they should marry. When one contrasts the theory of deontology with the perspective of relativism, one looks at two views that kind of work together. Where deontology focuses on what we are obliged to do as moral human beings, where relativism focuses on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s moral claims that are either right in a culture or wrong for society. Relativism is where an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s values and beliefs are simply understood in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own culture, society or oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own personal values. With relativism, one may find oneself debating with another person over what sport is considered the best sport. One person may believe that their viewpoint is more superior than the others view point of the issue. It is simply just that one person was raised with different views than the other. Deontology would then come in and would condemn some actions, if those actions violate the fundamental rule of treating others fairly and justly; thus allowing individuals to have their own beliefs or views (Mosser, 2010). To look at relativism and deontology together in regards to same sex marriages would help societies with dealing with same sex marriage. If society looked at the issue through the view of deontology, they would look at the situation in a moral way that every human being deserves to be treated fairly no matter the situation. Society with the perspective of relativism would have oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own views on the matter of same sex relationships and marriage based on ones upbringing and culture and would accept what the culture says is ethical. So, a society that outlaws same-sex marriage would be acceptable to a relativist. However, with deontology in mind, society would treat same sex partners the same as heterosexuals. Even though each individual has oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own views and beliefs on same sex marriage; with deontology one is not allowed to consider the consequences of same sex marriage, instead to simply treat others as human beings with the same respect and dignity that one would want done unto them (Mosser, 2010). My views on same sex marriage go along with deontology and relativism. I was raised in a family where we were taught certain ways of life but not to judge others for the way of life another may choose to live. With relativism, one would look at every situation based on how ones culture and ociety around them brought them up. For me, same sex marriage is something I feel should be allowed. I grew up having many gay and lesbian friends and to me it is normal for someone to date someone of the same sex. I do also feel that just because it is something that another person feels is right does not mean I have to agree with it to make it happen. When another person marries the same sex, it is them that are in that relationship not anyone else, so why does it offend or hurt others to see someone happy? Even if it is something a person is not comfortable with, who are they to judge? Would society be alright with someone telling them who they can or cannot marry? Some cultures marriage is pre-arranged; however, for many people in the United States heterosexuals are free to marry whomever they choose too. With deontology and relativism in mind, society can have their views on same sex marriage, but not let oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own views cause them to treat others different than one would want to be treated. In my freshman year in high school, I moved from California to Virginia where I was introduced to a whole new way of life compared to ways of life I knew in California. With relativism, I was used to certain ways of being that to me made Virginia a strange place to live in. It was in high school that I encountered my first homosexual person. At first, the whole way of thinking to me was wrong, immoral and not how the bible said relationships should be. I now see that growing up, my mother thought in ways of deontology and would always explain to me, whenever I was confused, about ethical values and how whether we feel something is morally right or wrong it does not make others ways of life morally wrong. As the years past, I was one of the bridesmaidÃ¢â¬â¢s in a wedding of my two dear lesbian friends, held in Las Vegas. Even though their way of life was not the way I choose to live, it did not give me the right to judge them for who they loved and who they wanted to marry. At their wedding, I could see that the two were happy and in love and a year later, with the sperm donations of our friend, the two had a beautiful baby girl. With relativism and ethical upbringing, ones views on who they marry is their own views; with deontology, one accepts everyone for their own views and upbringing even if they do not understand it but one does not judge it. In conclusion, we have seen now that the ethical reason behind why people in society believe that same sex marriage is wrong is simply due to discrimination. We have, also, seen that society does base their belief of ame sex marriage on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own biased reasoning, not because it is harmful to society or anything that can be justified. It is simply a view of relativism, oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own beliefs based on their society and upbringing. We have also seen that if society looked at same sex marriages with the views of deontology, society would be able to see things as they are and not discriminate and judge others for their beliefs and views. Society would treat everyone as they would want to be treated and same sex couples would be allowed to choose who they want to marry, just as heterosexual couples choose who they want to marry.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
The 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s was a huge struggle for women around the U. S. Huge rallies were formed and outrageous furry was spread city to city. All this drama and series of strikes was caused by the women that were eager to have the same rights as everyone else, without and racial or gender profiling against them. But late in that time period, that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t the cause. After numerous protests and the creating of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s national party, little did they know but it would soon become a huge success for all women around the globe. The 19th amendment guaranteed women the right to vote, and it went into effect in 1920.It had begun settling rates at levels intended to ensure the industries profits full woman suffrage before 1920, eighth date granted partial woman suffrage before 1920. No woman suffrage until ratification of 19th amendment. Elizabeth caddy staton becomes president of the national womenÃ¢â¬â¢s suffrage association. Women also began appearing on the political scene an d in elected offices. Winifred mason huck of representatives in 1922 was the first. The woman suffrage movement got off to a slow start. Some people threatened women suffragrates, and sold they were unfeminine and immoral. Many if its supports were abolitionists as well.In the years before the civil war abolishing slavery took priority. Many job opportunities were available for women. One of them being the biggest company at the time. They worked as operators at telephone companies. It was a great and easy job and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t involve doing much. It was better than staying home completing the daily tasks taken place at what was called, Ã¢â¬Å"A womenÃ¢â¬â¢s placeÃ¢â¬ , in the 1920's. Now it was not only at home but also in their workplace. Suffragists march in a 1912 rally in New York City. In 1920, after decades of struggle for the right to vote, the Nineteenth Amendment's ratification granted female suffrage.
Youthfulness has always been an attraction, a perception of vibrancy and dynamism in every stage of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This so-called Ã¢â¬Å"Fountain of YouthÃ¢â¬ in each individual is reflected in his or her lifestyle; their disposition towards other people in the society; their interaction in their working environment, most especially the quality of the output of their work; and their perception of life Ã¢â¬â that age does not hamper one to continue being young. Dossey (2002:12-16) For this group of youthful old individuals, what is vital is the quality of life and not the quantity of life. It is not whether they have lived long enough, but it is whether they have lived in attainment of their goals and aspirations, with contentment and happiness. This is what really matters at the end of the day. Dossey (2002:12-16) With all these debate over the significance of Ã¢â¬Å"extendingÃ¢â¬ this particular stage in life, science and technology played a crucial role in addressing these matters. Experiments have been conducted on the possibility of extending the life span of people with the intake of certain medicines or even through surgery. In this attempt to reach immortality, biological breakthrough in cell division and regeneration are being processed in order to ascertain the supply for this demand. Science and technology have paved way to the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset that indeed, the possibility of a longer and more youthful life can be available. Dossey (2002:12-16) From this vantage point, the emergence of biomedicine has blossomed and has demonstrated the various ways in which it can influence the social aspect of an individual, aside from the physical well-being of the person. Bios have always been regarded as the most effective and at the same time, the most cost-efficient amongst all types of remedy or medication. Before we proceed with the technical aspects of Bios in medicine or in cosmetics, it is important that the definition of Biologicals are also given proper attention in this paper. What is Biologicals? Biologicals or what we call the Biotechnology-derived products that require tedious work in preparation and simplification of the raw materials in order to ensure the quality-control is above or within the approved standards as legislated. Tsang (2003:367-370) As per attached herein, you can see the various product types of biologicals: Source: Tsang (2003:367-370) Given the sensitivity of the issue, it is necessary that Biotechnology-derived products are governed by a strong legislative body to maintain the standards that will enable the products to remain safe to the end-users, to us, humans. It was then defined that these products are products which contain a biological substance, the substance possessing the following: that it is extracted from or sourced from a biological substance, and that there is a need for that substance to undergo several tests to ascertain the measures of safety and reliability of the product; that it is not hazardous to health. Requirements have been set by the authorities-in-charge so that liabilities against the general public are minimized. At the same time, these regulatory compliances will also serve as educating tools for the end-users that they are aware of the products they purchase. This is most especially true when the health, such is the appearance, is at risk. An example of biologicals that are prevalent in this day and age is the use of Bio-cosmetics. Bio-cosmetics In order to meet the objective of the paper which is to give enlightenment on the status of the bio-cosmetic industry, it is necessary that we are all in equal footing in the definitions of the terms being used in this paper. Bio-cosmetics is primarily made of two different components incorporated to produce another element or component. In this case, we have Ã¢â¬Å"bioÃ¢â¬ and, we also have Ã¢â¬Å"cosmeticsÃ¢â¬ . Bio, from the Greek combining form: bios, which means Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ . Meanwhile, cosmetics pertain to the use for beautifying, cleansing or protecting, especially of the skin, nails, hair, or other parts of the human body, or of other species required for exhibition. Webster (2006:450) Furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"bioÃ¢â¬ is a composition of natural elements Ã¢â¬â raw materials that are unadulterated and constitutes the purest ingredients of Mother Nature. It is in these virgin materials that the most complicated and highly-processed and most sought-after medicines are derived from. One need not go far, as these are simply in our lush environment that we can acquire these Biologicals. Such form is the Bio-Cosmetics. From the word itself, these are cosmetics that utilize the most biologicals. Cosmetics have come a long way from its origins in the early ancient period. Grolier (2005: 188). Cosmetics, mainly used for changing and enhancing the appearance of the face, skin and/or hair of the human being, is also being used as an adjunct to religious rituals, wherein men and women in the ancient days adorn themselves with accessories and cosmetics. From the many archaeological studies of the early days, it was found that men and women knew of how to prepare pigments and blend them with greasy substances, which are then considered as cosmetics. Analysis of these prehistoric pigments has revealed that as many as 17 colors have been used for these purposes. The most commonly used were a white made from white lead, chalk or gypsum; a black from charcoal or manganese ores; and red, orange and yellow. During the ancient world, the Sumerians, Babylonians, Hebrews and Egyptians employed similar preparations of cosmetics for similar purposes as follows: ceremonial, medicinal and ornamental. The Ancient Middle Eastern civilizations lavished mostly on the eyes, in part as a form of protection. Grolier (2005: 188). Henna was used to dye the hair and the fingernails, the palms of the hand and the soles of the feet. Scents and unguents are restricted at first in the rituals of mummification. In Egypt, rouges, whitening powders, abrasives for cleaning the teeth, bath oils and lipsticks were used daily by both sexes from the upper classes. Almond, olive, sesame oils, thyme and oregano, frankincense and myrrh, saffron, rosewater, and chypre formed the foundation of basic concoctions that we re eventually used throughout the world. A few more examples of how cosmetics sprung in various countries are discussed herein: In India, cosmetics were significant in Indian women in fulfilling their duty to always appear alluring to their lover or mate, such as is specified under the Kama Sutra. Women then were advised to learn the arts of tattooing. Cosmetics also served as an emblem in determining the caste or class rank in the society. Up till now, many Indian women still use cosmetics in the ancient way: eyelids are tinted with an antimony-based dye, the faces and arms are stained yellow with saffron powder, and the soles of the feet are reddened with henna. Grolier (2005: 188). In Greece and Rome, the classical Greek only permitted the use of few cosmetics, although they made use of imported raw materials. Greek women however, dye their hair regularly during times of mourning, and they sometimes lightened it with pomade or colored powders. Meanwhile, the Romans scorned cosmetics as effete. However, during the time of the empire, cosmetics began to be desirable in defining symbols of status and wealth. It should be noted however, that most of these popular cosmetics were, in fact, poisonous, especially the white lead commonly used as face powder. Grolier (2005: 188). In Medieval Europe, cosmetics were for a time restricted to the males of certain courts and to high-born ladies and courtesans. The contemporary criteria for facial makeup in the Western world is perhaps a continuation of medieval beauty, which is required that a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s skin be as white as the lily, and that her cheeks as red as the rose. Preparations for achieving this ideal were available to the rich; commoners had to make do with the wheat-flour powder and beet-juice rouge. To cap this history notes of the birth of cosmetics, France emerged as the leader in developing the art of makeup, and both men and women of rank used face powder, hair powder of saffron or flower pollen, and skin lotions. On the other hand, the Italians, particularly the Venetians, had become the major producers and purveyors of cosmetic preparations. Venetian ceruse, a skin whitener, was considered superior to all others and was in great demand, despite the knowledge that the white lead it contained could ruin the complexion and cause baldness, and if used in the long run, even death. Grolier (2005: 188-191). The peak of cosmetic use was reached in 18th century Europe, especially in England and France, where both sexes attempted to reach an almost totally artificial appearance. In England, this was the age of macaroni, the young fop whose clothing, powdered wig, rouge, and red lips, were supposedly inspired by Italian fashion. By the 1880Ã¢â¬â¢s, advances in technology Ã¢â¬â especially in printing Ã¢â¬â and the advent of advertising opened way for a new era in cosmetic history: the age of testimonial advertisements. Respectable and beautiful women began to appear in print ads enabling and encouraging more women to use cosmetics. Grolier (2005: 188-191).
Monday, July 29, 2019
Why Alcohol Is Good for You - Essay Example The aspect of risk taking can result in discovering new subjects and broadening opportunities towards learning the reality. One of the major types of risks in writing is avoiding the sense of safety. However, safety is not a preferred component in writing. In relation to the article, it can be observed that the author i.e. Jonah Lehrer has taken the risk of revealing the beneficiaries of alcohol consumption in human life where most of the people know the evil aspects of the same (Centrinity Inc., Ã¢â¬Å"Newspaper Article Expectation SheetÃ¢â¬ ).Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Risk can appear in the form of choosing highly controversial topic or subject. Writing on controversial topic can raise significant risks in terms of raising arguments from the readers on any opinion or oversight of the writer. The author also undertakes this risk of writing on a highly debatable topic and dared his viewpoint about how alcohol can provide benefits to people. Biasness is the other aspect of writin g which can generate risk in writing. Any sort of writing must demonstrate both positive as well as negative aspects of a chosen issue or subject so that it can avoid any misperception or prejudice. In the article of Jonah Lehrer, it can be observed that the author has described both favorable and unfavorable aspects of consuming alcohol. He also described alternative approaches for improving the lifestyle of the people. A good article demonstrates both aspects of a subject without making a final judgment. Hence, it has been observed in the article, that the author.... sort of writing must demonstrate both positive as well as negative aspects of a chosen issue or subject so that it can avoid any misperception or prejudice. In the article of Jonah Lehrer, it can be observed that the author has described both favorable and unfavorable aspects of consuming alcohol. He also described alternative approaches for improving the lifestyle of the people. A good article demonstrates both aspects of a subject without making a final judgment. Hence, it has been observed in the article, that the author did not provide any judgment and delivered impartial standpoint about the merits and demerits of alcohol consumption (Centrinity Inc., Ã¢â¬Å"Newspaper Article Expectation SheetÃ¢â¬ ). There exists significant difference in written language and oral language (Ferraro and Palmer, Ã¢â¬Å"Differences Between Oral and Written CommunicationÃ¢â¬ ). Since 19th century, there has been comprehensive change in language both in written as well as in verbal communication modes. In 21st century, as several new social classes begin to utilize written mode and their requirement for reading and writing increased, the demand of written language has been increased at large. There are several language norms which are related with different societal layers prevailing in a culture. In this regard it can be said that there pertain three language norms namely standard language, regional language and local language. Among these three languages, standard languages are directly associated with ordinary written standard. The execution of standard language has strengthened throughout the period of 20th century. The local languages had lost their importance during this period because of increasing standardization in schools and universities. Furthermore, the rising geographical and social
Sunday, July 28, 2019
And analysis of business problems - Research Paper Example This industry is mainly driven by technology, globalization and Integration. The logistic Industry trends show that in the coming years this sector is going to strengthen further. The expansion of the geographical boundaries and tapping more customers is the main motive of the logistics companies nowadays. The study is on one of the major companies in the Logistics Industry, known as FedEx. The company Fed Express Corporation, popularly known as FedEx, is an American company which was established in the year 1971 by Frederick W. Smith. FedEx offers several services to its customers which includes overnight couriers, freight services and other business support and logistics solutions. It is one of the biggest transportation companies providing logistics services and delivering consignments all over US and in more than 220 countries. The revenue of FedEx is about $ 34,734 million in the year 2010. There was a decrease in the revenue of 2.1 percent due to the impact of global recession. But surprisingly there was an increase in the profit percentage of the company compared to its last yearÃ¢â¬â¢s profit (Ã¢â¬Å"Company OverviewÃ¢â¬ ). Business Problems of FedEx The major business of FedEx is overnight delivery of consignments. Though FedEx is one of the major players in the logistics sector, yet it is facing tough fight from the other logistics companies. The major issues that FedEx is facing are: The global environmental problems In the environmental issues, the first problem is with the airlines facilities. The absence of proper landing spaces, back-up plans and the airport facilities hampers the guarantee of delivering consignment on the right time. Cut Throat Competition The major issue in competition is to face the price wars of the competitors. UPS is a close competitor of FedEx and after its entry into the logistics market, the revenue of FedEx declined by 30.3 percent. Technological problems The technological factor is very important because it keeps c hanging within a short span of time. Zapmail became obsolete due to the introduction of Fax machines. FedEx lost about $ 350 million and it had to withdraw itself from such business. So it is very important to develop the technologies within the company so as to compete with the advance technology (Ã¢â¬Å"IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ). Human Resource problems The FedEx ground services faced new challenges from its contractors delivering parcels at FedEx ground. These contract drivers own the trucks which they drive for FedEx to deliver the consignments to different places. Now, these contract drivers are not the direct employees of FedEx. So these drivers are demanding direct employment of FedEx. This would entitle them with the pension schemes, medical facilities and other facilities that FedEx employees get. But FedEx is not accepting such demands of its contractual drivers. This is a major issue which has created a huge problem in the FedEx ground department (Johansson 7-10) The logistics market is highly competitive and it gets affected very easily by price and service changes. So the
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Comparative Economic Systems - Essay Example In order to deal with the loss experienced by recession, each nation implemented certain monetary and fiscal policies applying distinct frameworks to stabilize their economy. However, the level of growth and recovery has been noticed at an uneven rate in every nation. Hence, it can be assumed that the economic policies applied, might have evidently worked in different principles for each nation. Introduction At present, the US economy is continuing to undergo an average growth and recovery from its recessionary consequences. The recovery started with the growth of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), but has been decelerated significantly throughout 2011. Several economists referred that to date, the economic recovery of the US is uncertain and disappointing (Byun & Frey, 2012). Furthermore, the GDP rate of the UK is expanding at a modest rate. Confronted with the slow economic growth and recovery, Americans have started to suspend formation of families, acquisition of homes and vehicle s among others. Although four years have passed since the recession, the US economy has not observed the superfluous growth that often triggers retrenchment (Miller & Matthews, 2013). Based on this aspect, the essay describes about the economic problem faced by the US. Furthermore, the essay also explains the policy alternatives of the UK and Germany for attaining economic recovery and growth. Policy Responses for the US Economic Growth and Recovery Monetary Policies In order to boost economic stability within the US, the government has utilized conventional monetary policies by reducing the federal funds to about zero for stimulating the economic activity. Subsequently, the rate of federal funds reduced from 5.25% in 2007 to 0.16% in 2008. Since the unemployment rate increased, the government reacted by implementing numerous policies for soothing the financial market and increasing the availability of credit for people and organizations. For example, the US government boarded large -scale asset purchase program and quantitative easing scheme in order to drive down the mortgage rate. These policies resulted in better channel for liquidity and encouraged better confidence among investors (Byun & Frey, 2012). Fiscal Policies The fiscal policies of the government majorly included functions in two grounds namely spending and tax policy. In order to ensure economic growth and recovery, the US government also sanctioned Economic Stimulus Act in 2008, which was intended to deliver tax discounts to households and quicker depreciation regulations for business. With respect to extraordinary actions, the government also enacted Emergency Economic Stabilization Act in 2008 for improving the aggregate capital position of banks and removing troubled assets from balance sheet. Furthermore, government has also extended the unemployment benefits and temporarily reduced the payroll tax to support its failing economic growth (Elwell, 2013). Economic Growth and Recovery in the US The economic recession that was strategically engrossed by the US economy has alleviated due to the adoption of unparalleled policies. During 2010, the deep and long international recession has bottomed out and economic recovery of the US has proceeded. Apart from the US, in Europe, the UK and Germany has also returned to positive economic growth, however applying a distinct policy framework (Cronin, 2013). After the global economic recession, the US economy returned to a positive growth in the third
Friday, July 26, 2019
Democracy and Religion in Developing Countries - Essay Example In the Muslim world, particularly developing countries issues concerning political democracy are raised with special force because of the strength of the Islamic resurgence and the intensity of the demands in recent years which demand better political processes. Before examining the application of democracy in Islamic countries, there is a need to analyze the significance of Islam in politics. Islamic politics according to modern Islamic movements and what history tells us is a combination of religion and politics for the reason that medieval Islamic civilization of the Umayyads and the Abbasids followed non-state structures based on the grounds of religious faith and action (Esposito & Voll: 4). This indicates that the true implication of democracy in the Muslim era was followed by the belief that the most pious person among the society was supposed to be selected by civilians as well as by his followers. The current political culture of liberal secular societies never concern about God and never weighs God's approval or disapproval of their policies or behaviour. For this reason one can see that even religious political struggles and negotiations differ a lot when compared to those of the past. This clearly indicates that today's liberal democratic governments pursue people's happiness to the exclusion of God's approval (Sadri & Sadri: 122). Democratic Political Systems The concept of democracy followed in Islamic countries encompasses Islamic activist movements that challenge government while supporting others. What usually happens in this era is that in the political interests of Islamic revivalist groups, revolutionary opposition takes place which leads them either to ruling governments, or such movements may participate in the ruling political system as opposition movements. Many times it is seen that such religious movements are based as they are crucial part of the government or are themselves the ruling force in the political system. Such a perspective of democracy is based on a broad spectrum that gives us an overview of different situations within which Islamic democratization exists. Therefore such situations are: (1) revolutionary democracy to the ruling political government (2) legal or cooperating democracy that works within the boundaries of political system (3) active participation as a democratic government alliance which works wit h other political forces and (4) the system that controls and leads the existing political system. The above situations as practiced by most of the Islamic countries shapes the nature of emerging democratic ideals in the Islamic world as well as the developing and influenced new political orders in Islam. Democracy in the Middle East As far as Islamic law and order is concerned, it is severely implemented in the region except for the positive peace in the Middle East. Countries like Iraq, Iran and Israel are pervaded with armed conflicts in various types and forms like regional conflicts, resource wars, separatist and nationalist conflicts and irredentist conflicts. However some countries are influenced by other ethnic, religious and tribal struggles to the extent where their democratic power is heavily influenced under revolutionary and fundamentalist struggles. The peoples and governments throughout the Middle East are thus confronting pro-democracy anti-colonial struggles. Middle Eastern democratic trend follows violent conflicts and does not fulfil the criteria of positive peace in the region which is the utmost ground for building a democratic
Thursday, July 25, 2019
SWOT Analysis - Research Paper Example Australia consists of six states; New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia and Tasmania and 2 territories; the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory. Its capital city is Canberra. Even though Australia is the smallest continent in the world, it is the sixth largest country in the world. The population is concentrated mainly on the eastern and southeastern coastal areas. The geography of Australia is extremely diverse including snowy mountains, deserts, tropical and temperate forests etc. This paper analyses the population, culture, economy, political, legal, and technological environment, strength, weakness opportunities, and threats of Australia. Aborigines, who migrated to Australia from South Asia around 40000 years before are believed to be the first inhabitants of Australia. Europeans started to settle in Australia during the latter part of eighteenth century. Before that indigenous Australians, were the inhabitants in Australia . Eastern half of Australia was claimed by Britain during the latter part of 18 th century and Britain implemented colonial rule in Australia for a longer period. The major culture in Australia is essentially a Western culture since the Europeans established their colonies there. English is the predominant language in Australia. Even though Britain ruled Australia for a longer period, the Australian English vocabulary, accent, and pronunciations are slightly different from that of the British English. Ã¢â¬Å"In most practical ways, Australia is an egalitarian society. This does not mean that everyone is the same or that everybody has equal wealth or propertyÃ¢â¬ (About Australia). Unlike many other countries in the world, class distinctions are invisible in Australia. People respect each other irrespective of the wealth, power or social influence. Ã¢â¬Å"Australia is the thirteenth largest economy in the world. As of 2009, Australia GDP was estimated to be $920 billion.Ã Austr alia has managed an impressive 18 years of continuous growth since 1992 - see Australia GDPÃ GrowthÃ¢â¬ (Australia Economy). Unlike many other nations in the world, Australian economy kept its growth phase even when the recent recession struck other countries. Revenues from natural resources, tourism, agriculture, industries etc keep Australian economy in the growth track. Australia is a parliamentary democratic country which respects human rights, freedom, liberty, etc of the people very much. Two party political system, is prevailing in Australia even though in many other democratic countries multiparty political system prevail. The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia consists of two chambers: The Australian House of Representatives and The Australian Senate. The Australian House of Representatives has 150 members whereas Australian Senate has 76 members, each elected for a three-year term of office from a constituency. The Australian legal system is based on a fundame ntal belief in the rule ofÃ law, justice and the independence of the judiciary. All peopleÃ¢â¬âAustralians and non-Australians alikeÃ¢â¬âare treated equally before the law and safeguards exist to ensure that people are not treated arbitrarily or unfairly by governments or officials. Principles such as procedural fairness, judicial precedent and the separation of powers are fundamental to
Trademark laws in the United Arab Emirates - Research Paper Example The symbol trademark of this company that indentifies its products is swoosh, which is a trademark that ranks as one of the best, among the most recognized and popular logo in the world. The symbol of trademark was designed in 1972, after the owner of the company, which was then known as the Blue Ribbon Sports, required a symbol that would effectively indentify his products, and thus serve to allow him more of inventory control. Thus, the symbol was designed to represent one of the wings of the Greek goddess of victory, called the Nike. This goddess served as a great inspiration to the ancient Greek warriors, granting them courage and strength to gain victory in the battles (Coleman, 19). Thus, this symbol was designed to represent the products of this company, signifying winning, achievement, as well as excellence (Smith, 6). This did tally very well with the image that the ancient Greek Goddess Nike was associated with; commonly having the then Greek warriors, believe and attest to the fact that when they went to a war and won, then they said it is Nike. Thus, swoosh, previously referred, as the stripe became a symbol of victory, which is evident of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand worldwide. The owner desired a symbol that would show an element of movement, which is represented by swoosh, a symbol of progressive growth and achievement (Coleman, 22). The symbol was registered in 1995 as the trademark for the Nike Inc., and, is solely responsible for the successful brand identification and success. The rules governing Nike and its use of swoosh trademark applies inform of regulations, that restricts any use of its trade name or the logo for any commercial purpose, other than for placing an order or purchase of the Nike products. Under the copyright regulation rules of this company, anybody is prohibited from modifying, copying, or reproducing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s trade name or logo to represent any other product that is not a brand of this company (Smith, 7). Anothe r of the regulation guiding the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s use of the logo and its trade name is the fact that the company has issued a warning that any order placed with the company can be cancelled at any point. This can happen even after the order has been confirmed, should such an order placement be deemed inappropriate or as an attempt to tamper with the trademark rights of the company (Coleman, 25). An indemnification is issuable to the buyer whose order has been cancelled. The trademark laws in the UAE do not just protect the logo or the trade name. They are attached to the product or services the trademark represents (Ashour, 10). Some example of trademark laws include such laws as prohibits any mark that violates public morals. Symbols of a pure religious nature are also prohibited from being applied as trademarks (Smith, 8). Such laws are relevant and appropriate to preserve the morals of the society, while avoiding confusion with marks of religious entities. However, the restrictio n on the registration of a translation of a previous trademark should be removed, to allow for the improvements of logos and trademarks by commercial entities. Any infringement of the rights of the com
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology - Assignment Example The humanistic theories are also discussed in the chapter (Ellen et al.: slides 16-18), and these theories are presented as more humanistic than FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theories. In this case, Abraham MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchy of needs is outlined. The chapter analysis that under these theories, although parents set up conditions for their children, there is a person centered therapy where people are taught to live by their own values. Moreover, the chapter discusses trait theories (Ellen et al.: slides 19-23) and the way they explain personality and differences among people with regard to personal characteristics that consider situations. It explores some ideas proposed by early trait theorists. The chapter concludes the topic by listing five factors that were considered by trait theorists as most significant in personality. The chapter also discusses cognitive theories (Ellen et al.: slides 24-27) where the situation trait debate is analyzed. The components of BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s reciprocal determinism model are discussed, in addition to the locus of control and what it contributes to personality. Lastly (slides 28-38), the nature, nurture and personality are discussed and the way personality differs across culture. The chapter concludes by discussing personality assessment methods, the rating scales and tests. In this light, chapter eleven highlights the projection of the resultÃ¢â¬â¢s insight to personality. Chapter twelve discusses psychological disorders including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and other psychological disorders. The chapter starts by defining psychological disorder (Ellen et al.: slide 2-8) as mental processes or behavioral pattern that leads to emotional distress and finally impairs the mental functioning of an individual. The criteria to be used to determine abnormal behavior are discussed with the inclusion of DSM-IV-TR, which is used by clinicians. The ways of preventing psychological disorders and the theoretical approaches used to explain
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Lamb to the Slaughter - Essay Example The use of irony can easily captivate and excite us. Many a times in order to understand the moral of the story or the theme; it needs one to be able to recognize irony. There are multiple uses and examples of irony throughout this short story. One example is when Mary Maloney goes to the grocery store after she kills her husband; she acts as if nothing has happened and gives the grocery store clerk the idea that everything is fine. This is considered dramatic irony because the reader knows more about whatÃ¢â¬â¢s taken place than some of the characters in the story. The clerk thinks Patrick is at home waiting for dinner, but we know he is dead. Another example is when the policemen are eating the leg of lamb and one says "Probably right under our very noses. What do you think, Jack? "(Dahl 9).This is dramatic irony because the weapon used to kill Patrick really is right under their noses. Yet they have obviously committed one of the worst errors possible in this crime scene, and lo st the pivotal evidence they would need to for finding the killer, they continue eating, assuming the leg of lamb could never be a weapon, while Mary Maloney is giggling in the other room. In other words, Dahl is trying to capture here, and the dramatic irony really catches the tone of the dark comedy. That makes the audience feel the ideas of a tragedy as something funny. Therefore, relating back to the overall picture of the piece of literate as a dark comedy. The conflict then begins to arise again as she creates an alibi and brings in the police to catch the murderer. There are two external conflicts in this story.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Why PE Should Be In Every School Essay In high school, students have a full schedule for five days on a week to always study about subjects like mathematics, biology, economy etc. Have a full schedule like that can make the students body and mind disturbed and confused. PE or physical education in high school helps students to refreshed their body and mind in that full busy week of schedule. There are a lot of advantages of PE or sport that many people know, but there also some of disadvantages that few people know about sport or PE. PE, physical education is one of the subjects in high school. PE is an education process through phycical activity, physical exercise or sport to achieve educational purpose. PE is done with well-organized program by the teacher that involve not only the physical activity but also provide a media for the student to explore and to learn the environment. The advantages of PE according to Mahendra (2013), generally said that the advantages of PE in school include the following: 1. Fullfill the needs of the children of move. 2. Introduce the children to the environtment and the potential skill of them. 3. To set up the bneficial of basics skill. 4. Direct the excessive energy to a better way. 5. An simultaneously eduational process of both physically, mentally and emotionally. PE in high school is held once a week so the students can maintain their health routinely on a week. PE also needed by the students to refresh their body and mind from the busy schedule of study on a week. PE or sport also has some disadvantages. If it done excessively, it can affect students health and result in side effects to the body. Exhaustion, of course if you impose your body to work more than before you must feel tired. Physical activity like running or with high intensity can endanger the heart health, it makes your heart bigger. Bigger heart makes you get more tired easily. Another example of high intensity physical activity side effects is blood clots. As experienced by Danielle Yalop from Manchester, England. Yalop had to undergo a rib removal surgery because of blood clots, or Deep Vein Thrombosis. A blood clots that can plug up artery and causing death. Another side effect of excessive physical activity is a headache. If you feel a headache when you are doing or done doing physical activity, it means that your body lacking water or dehydration. Headache is a simptom of dehydration. The more you doing physical activity, the more water leave your body. In addition of the advantages of PE that Mahendra said, PE might help you to keep your body healthy and fit, removing toxins, keep the heart healthy and stable, reducing body fat. Of course you have to exercise regulary as needed and not doing it excessively. PE is important not only in high school but also in elementary and junior high school. Sometimes, PE is considered not necessary by the school committee. PE only considered as a refreshing time so the physical activity and the education not be taken seriously and not done properly. In fact, PE is very important to keep balance between physical education and the primary one. If PE is taken seriously, it can helps developed knowledge and skills that related to social development, self-confident and developed the personal value through participating in a physical activity group. Although PE in some school only considered not necessary, PE is important and every school and student must have and do PE within the busy schedule in scho ol life. If school committe take PE seriously and think that PE is important because of the advantages, they might be doing it twice a week. Hiring a competent PE teacher and well-organized PE program that can help the students maintaining their health , body, mind and help them to upgrade their primary education.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Impact of Social Exclusion on Physical and Mental Health Impact of social exclusion to physical and mental health of Australian children Dian Atiqah Binte Lokman O.Mahat 1.0 Introduction For the purpose of this paper, the various physical and mental health impacts of social exclusion will be discussed, with specific focus on the health of Australian children. The concept of social exclusion has become one of the widely recognised framework for understanding, measuring and addressing poverty and disadvantages in multidimensional level (Harding, McNamara, Daly and Tanton, 2009). Social exclusion is one of the many social factors that contribute to the social determinant of health. Australian children are at risk of child social exclusion with the spatial differences in areas of high social exclusion risk that are common in AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s rural and regional balance, and in clusters of outer areas in most of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s capital cities(Harding, McNamara, Daly and Tanton, 2009). Physical and mental health implications resulting from social exclusion will be discussed in relation to social acceptance. 2.0 Social Exclusion as a Determinant of Health for Australian Children According to the British Social Exclusion Unit, Ã¢â¬Ësocial exclusion is what can happen when people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems such as unemployment, poor skills, low incomes, poor housing, high crime, poor health and family breakdownÃ¢â¬â¢ (Office of the Deputy Prime Minister,2004,p.2). People have a fundamental need for positive and lasting relationships. With the evolution of history, human develops the trait of belonging that enables individuals to gain acceptance and avoid rejection. As belongingness is a core component of human functioning, social exclusion influences many cognitive, emotional, and behavioural outcomes and personality expression. (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011) Social exclusion in the school environment is increasingly being recognised as a form of relational aggression or bullying, in which a child is exposed to harm through the manipulation of their social relationships and status (Edith Cowan University, 2009). There are many form of social exclusion such as experiences being deliberately excluded from a peer group, rumours spread about them, name calling and being purposefully embarrassed. Hence, social exclusion defies a lack of connectedness, participation, alienation or disenfranchisement from certain people within the society. Based on a Social Policy Research Centre (SPRC) survey results, 1 in 6 children live in households experiencing social exclusion; experiencing four or more of the nine indicators of no weekÃ¢â¬â¢s holiday away from home each year, children did not participate in school activities and outings, no hobby or leisure activity for children, no medical treatment if needed, no access to a local doctor or hospital, no access to a bulk-billing doctor, does not have $500 in emergency savings, could not raise $2000 in a week in an emergency and lives in a jobless household (Saunders and Naidoo, 2008). Many range of studies done by the Commonwealth of Australia Senate Community Affairs Reference Committee in 2004 shows disadvantaged children in Australia and the impact of poverty on indicators including health education and health, and the social and economic implications of poverty (Harding, McNamara, Daly and Tanton, 2009). 3.0 How Australian Children are affected through social exclusion Children that experience disadvantages suffer from negative effects throughout their life course (Saunders, Naidoo and Griffiths, 2008). Those who are consistently teased or ostracized, or are always the last ones chosen for the team; people who make fools of themselves in public presentations, or are ridiculed by superiors; and individuals who are put down, criticized, or rejected by relationship partners or because they possess devalued characteristics or social stigmas often experience social evaluative threat (SET), which occurs when the self could be negatively judged by others (Dickerson Kemeny, 2004). This leads to social pain- the emotional response to the perception that one is being excluded, rejected or devalued by a significant individual or group (MacDonald Leary, 2005) which produces specific physiological responses, including changes in the cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and immune systems (Dickerson, 2008 ; Dickerson, Grunewald Kemeny, 2004) Racial, ethnic, and cultural minority students are at greater risk than others of encountering disadvantages in school (Kaspar, 2013). In Australia and New Zealand, 11-13% of Indigenous youth reported school-based victimization in the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS; Zubrick et al. 2005), the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS; Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2010), and the Youth 2007 Survey (Clarke et al., 2009). School-based victimization is contemporaneous with, and antecedent to negative peer group conditions, including peer rejection, fewer friendships, poor quality of friendships, and perceptions of peers as hostile, untrustworthy and ill-intentioned (Salmivalli Isaacs, 2005). Based on an Australian survey, Indigenous youth were more vulnerable to emotional health difficulties due to bullying than were non-Indigenous students bullied (Blair et al., 2005). These social evaluative events that induce social pain are capable of eliciting intense emotional and physiological responses as well. Accessibility to geographical and workforce supply also contributes to the variation of child health outcome. Inequalities in health arise because of inequalities in the conditions of daily life under which we are born, develop into young children, grow into teenage years and adulthood, and live into old age (Chittleborough, Baum, Taylor Hiller, 2006; Marmot et al., 2010; WHO, 2008). High social exclusion risk are found in rural, regional areas and clusters in outer areas of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s capital cities (Harding et al, 2009; Tanton et al., 2010). These reduces the opportunity for intervention and prevention of long term consequences of social deprivation on health (WHO, 2008). 4.0 Impacts of Social Exclusion on Physical and Mental Health for Australian Children The stress of belonging to a socially excluded group can have an adverse affect on mental health. Prolonged stress raises the bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s levels of cortisol and lowers immune system functioning. Chronic stress related to racism and discrimination have been linked to diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases. Modern evidence indicates that a lack of social connectedness relates to poorer immune system functioning, poor sleep quality, increased total peripheral resistance and increase risk of death (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011). Research suggests that the physical, emotional and mental health of children exposed to social exclusion can be compromised. Children who have been socially excluded influences a variety of outcomes, including lower immune function, reduced sleep quality, reduced ability to calm oneself in times of distress, reduced self-esteem, feelings of anxiety, depression, aggression, self-regulation pro-social behaviour, attentional processes and attitude formation. In extreme events of social exclusion, it causes a period of temporary analgesia, similar to how the body copes with severe physical injury which is both physical and emotional (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011). Social exclusion affect the mental health of an individual that leads to aggression, anti-social behaviour, lack of self-control , negative attitude and need of attention. Social exclusion increased aggressive behaviour and hostile perception of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ambiguous actions (DeWall, Twenge, et al., 2009; DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011). Rejected people usually behave aggressively towards large group of people that could lead to mass violence (Gaertner et al., 2008). However, the aggression drops when they experience a sense of acceptance, social connection or regain a feeling of control with their surroundings (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011).Those experiencing social exclusion will also be less willing to engage in pro-social action as they were not driven to behave prosocially without having a sense of belonging and acceptance from others. In a study done by (Baumeister, DeWall,Ciarocco Twenge, 2005; DeWall, Baumeister, Vohs, 2008) investigate a link that exist betw een social exclusion and self- regulation. When people experience social exclusion, the implicit bargain is broken, signalling to the excluded individual that controlling his or her impulses will no longer reap the benefits of acceptance which impairs their self-regulation (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011). This could affect their performances when it is not linked with acceptance. Attitude plays a fundamental aspect in psychological processes. It shapes responses to create agreement with others, further emphasising on the importance of social connection that could not be achieved through social exclusion. Social exclusion also affects patterns of basic, early-in-the-stream cognitive processes that are linked to the desire for renewed affiliation of attention that could act as a building block for more complex social cognition and actions (DeWall, Deckman, Pond Bonser, 2011). Repeated or persistent exposure to social exclusion can cause individuals to experience social pain more often for longer duration which leads to more frequent or prolonged activation of the psychological systems which could lead to negative consequences such as increase in cardiovascular, neuroendocrine and immunological parameters.(Dickerson, 2011). These physiological responses maybe an important factor for determining the mechanisms through which social pain could ultimately influence health and disease (Dickerson, 2011). 5.0 Conclusion It is evident that childhood social exclusion can lead to ongoing intergenerational disadvantage and therefore it is important to identify the risk factors of such experiences and improve the pathways, opportunities and life chances of such children. Dynamic intervention of public policies and support from families are required to address the root causes of social exclusion in order to reverse the effects of social exclusion on the developmental, behavioural, and health outcomes in children. (1499 words) 6.0 References Blair, E.M., Zubrick, S.R., Cox, A, H. (2005). The Western Australia Aboriginal child health survery: fidnings to date on adolescents. Medical Journal of Australia, 183(8), 433-435 Chittleborough, C. R., Baum, F. E., Taylor, A. W., Hiller, J. E. (2006). A life course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population health surveillance systems, Journal of Epidemiology Community Health, 60(11), 981-992 Clare, T. C., Robinson, E., Crengle, S., Grant, S,. Galbreath, R. A., Sykara, J. (2009). YouthÃ¢â¬â¢ 07: The health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand. Findings on young people and violence. Auckland, New Zealand: The University of Auckland DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D. (2008). Satiated with belonginess? Effects of acceptance, rejection, and task framing on self-regulatory performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1367-1382 Dewall, C. N., Deckman, T., Pond, R. S., Bonser, I. (2011) Belongingness as a Core Personality Trait: How Social Exclusion Influences Social Functioning and Personality Expression : Journal of Personality, Vol.79(6), pp.1281-1314 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Dickerson, S.S., Grunewald, T.L., Kemeny, M. E. (2004). When social self is threatened: Shame, physiology and health. Journal of personality, 72, 1191-1216. Dickerson, S.S. (2008). Emotional and physiological responses to social-evaluative threat. Social and personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1362-1378. Dickerson, S. (2011). Physiological responses to experiences of social pain. Social pain: Neuropsychological and health implications of loss and exclusion. , (pp. 79-94). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association, x, 258 pp. Edith Cowan University (2009). Australian Covert Bullying Prevalence Study, CHPRC http://deewr.gov.au/bullying-research-projects Gaertner, L., Iuzzini, J., OÃ¢â¬â¢Mara, E. M. (2008). When rejection by one fosters aggression against many: Multiple- victim aggression as a consequence of social rejection and perceived groupness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 958-970 Harding, A., McNamara, J., Daly, A., Tanton, R. (2006). Child social exclusion: an updated index from the 2006 Census, Australian Journal of Labour Economics, v.12, no.1, 2009: 41-64 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Kaspar, V (2013) Mental health of Aboriginal children and adolescents in violent school environments: Protective mediators of violence and psychological / nervous disorders, Social Science and Medicine, Vol.81, pp.70-78 [Peer Reviewed Journal] Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2004), The Social Exclusion Unit, Office of the Deputy Prime Minister,London Salmivalli, C., Issacs, J. (2005). Prospective relations among victimization, rejection, friendliness, and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s self- and peer- perceptions. Child Development, 76(6), 1161-1171 Saunders, P., Naidoo, Y. (2008), Towards new indicators of disadvantage: deprivation and social exclusion in Australia, Social Policy Research Centre, University of New South Wales. Tanton, R., Harding, A., McNamara, J., Yap, M. (2010), Australian Children at risk of social exclusion: a spatial index for gauging relative disadvantage. Population Space and Place, 16(2), 135-150. WHO, (2008). Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final report. In Commision on the social determinants of health: Geneva: World Health Organisation Zubrick, S,R., Silburn, S. R., Lawrence, D. M., Mitrou, F. G., Dalby, R. B., Blair, E. M., et al. (2005). Summary report. The Western Australian Aboriginal Child health survey: Forced separation from natural family, relocation from traditional country or homeland, and social and emotional well-being of Aboriginal children and young people. Perth: Curtin University of Technology and Telethon Institute for Children Health Research. Lokman O.Mahat_Dian Atiqah_ 17289812 HHB 130 Discussion Paper
Laboratorio de Metalurgia FÃ sica 5.1.3 Practicas en el Laboratorio de Metalurgia FÃ sica PreparaciÃ ³n MetalografÃ a de Muestras Ã · OBJETIVO Iniciar al estudiante en la preparaciÃ ³n metalografÃ a de muestras y anÃ ¡lisis de las mismas. Ã · INTRODUCCIÃâN TEÃâRICA: Bajo el nombre de metalografÃ a se engloban toda una serie de tÃ ©cnicas y conocimientos cientÃ ficos cuyo fin Ã ºltimo es la observaciÃ ³n tanto macroscÃ ³pica como microscÃ ³pica de las caracterÃ sticas estructurales de los metales y aleaciones. La presente prÃ ¡ctica de laboratorio se basa exclusivamente en la preparaciÃ ³n de muestras (llamadas probetas) para la observaciÃ ³n microscÃ ³pica de materiales metÃ ¡licos, a travÃ ©s del uso del microscopio Ã ³ptico metalogrÃ ¡fico (MO). Ã · La preparaciÃ ³n metalogrÃ ¡fica Involucra una serie de pasos para obtener una probeta con una superficie perfectamente plana y libre de rayas al observarse bajo el microscopio Ã ³ptico. Primero se comienza seleccionando una muestra adecuada, cortÃ ¡ndola para llevarla a un tamaÃ ±o conveniente y de ser necesario se embute en una resina polimÃ ©rica o se monta en un sujetador mecÃ ¡nico para facilitar su manipulaciÃ ³n. Posterior a esto, la superficie debe esmerilarse y lijarse hasta lograr la planaridad y luego pulirse con ayuda de discos rotativos cubiertos de fieltro impregnados de una suspensiÃ ³n abrasiva, para eliminar las marcas del esmerilado. El pulido, provee en la mayorÃ a de los casos una superficie brillante tipo espejo. La observaciÃ ³n al microscopio de muestras no-metÃ ¡licas, sean materiales cerÃ ¡micos o materiales compuestos sigue (por lo general) las mismas etapas del proceso de preparaciÃ ³n de muestras metÃ ¡licas, aunque frecuentemente se requieren de instrumentos de corte y abrasivos de mayor dureza. Las tÃ ©cnicas y conocimientos para la preparaciÃ ³n de este tipo de muestras se engloban en el tÃ ©rmino petrografÃ a. Ã · DESARROLLO EXPERIMENTAL: Materiales y Equipos Ã¢â¬ ¢ Muestras metÃ ¡licas Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cortadoras de disco. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Esmeril de Cinta. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Papeles de lija. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pulidoras Rotativas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Microscopio Ãâptico. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Dispositivo de captura de imÃ ¡genes. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alcohol. Ã¢â¬ ¢ AlgodÃ ³n y recipiente para guardar las probetas Ã · DESBASTE GRUESO. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Esmerile, en la esmeriladora de cinta, la superficie de la muestra hasta obtener una superficie plana, cuidando de mantener un flujo constante de refrigerante. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Una vez que la superficie a observar estÃ © totalmente plana, lave la muestra con abundante agua. Limpie el equipo. No deje residuos de refrigerante en los alrededores. Ã · DESBASTE FINO v Comenzando por el papel esmeril de menor nÃ ºmero, desbaste la muestra moviÃ ©ndola sobre el papel abrasivo en una misma direcciÃ ³n, de manera recÃ proca. La direcciÃ ³n del movimiento debe ser perpendicular a las huellas del desbaste grueso. El proceso culmina al deben desaparecer las huellas del desgaste grueso por la abrasiÃ ³n efectuada, o equivalentemente, cuando toda la superficie de la probeta estÃ © cubierta por rayas paralelas a la direcciÃ ³n de movimiento. v Lave muy bien su muestra con agua y colÃ ³quela, sobre el siguiente papel de esmeril, de manera tal que las rayas anteriores sean perpendiculares a las nuevas rayas. Repita el paso anterior, hasta que estÃ ©n borradas la totalidad de las rayas generadas en el paso anterior. Puede ir chequeando con regularidad la desapariciÃ ³n de las rayas observando al microscopio la superficie de la muestra. AsegÃ ºrese de secar muy bien la muestra antes de colocarla en el microscopio, para ello enjuÃ ¡guela con alcohol Repita el paso anterior hasta llegar al papel esmeril de menor nÃ ºmero. v Al finalizar, lave muy bien la probeta, con abundante agua y sus manos con agua y jabÃ ³n. Limpie con un paÃ ±o la mesa de lijas, asegÃ ºrese de no dejar charcos de agua luego de finalizado su trabajo. Ã · PULIDO Este es uno de los pasos mÃ ¡s crÃ ticos de la preparaciÃ ³n metalogrÃ ¡fica, por lo tanto antes de comenzar, lave muy bien con abundante agua el paÃ ±o que va a utilizar, para evitar la presencia de restos de metal o abrasivos que puedan estropear su proceso de pulido. v Agregue una pequeÃ ±a cantidad del abrasivo de tamaÃ ±o de partÃ cula mÃ ¡s grueso (suspensiÃ ³n de alÃ ºmina de 1 micrÃ ³n, generalmente) al paÃ ±o de pulido y gradÃ ºe el grifo hasta tener un goteo de agua constante. v Coloque la muestra sosteniÃ ©ndola firmemente sobre el disco rotatorio ejerciendo una presiÃ ³n moderada, para asegurar un pulido parejo y evitar que la probeta sea proyectada por el movimiento del disco. v La probeta debe moverse suavemente desde la periferia hacia el centro del paÃ ±o y viceversa. TambiÃ ©n puede girarse en sentido contrario al movimiento del disco. La tÃ ©cnica y destreza para efectuar el pulido dependerÃ ¡ en gran parte de la muestra en estudio. v Pida la opiniÃ ³n de su instructor y de ser necesario (la mayorÃ a de las veces lo es) pase a otro paÃ ±o y continÃ ºe el pulido con abrasivo de tamaÃ ±o de partÃ cula mÃ ¡s fino (suspensiÃ ³n de alÃ ºmina de 0,3 micrones, generalmente) o con algÃ ºn otro tipo de abrasivo, esto dependerÃ ¡ de la muestra que usted estÃ © preparando. v Una vez que su muestra haya alcanzado una superficie plana tipo espejo, lÃ ¡vela con abundante agua, rocÃ ela con alcohol, evitando la presencia de rastro alguno de humedad que pueda crear confusiÃ ³n al momento del anÃ ¡lisis microscÃ ³pico. Una vez mÃ ¡s colabore con el mantenimiento del laboratorio y limpie, con un trapo, todo resto de agua y de suspensiÃ ³n abrasiva que su trabajo haya podido dejar. v Observe su muestra pulida al microscopio, esta observaciÃ ³n, dependiendo de la aleaciÃ ³n, puede ser de significativa importancia a la hora de observar ciertos aspectos microestructurales, tales como ciertas fases e inclusiones, asÃ como otros defectos propios del material (grietas y porosidades) e inclusive defectos generados en la etapa de pulido (colas de cometa y rayas). PRACTICA NO. 12 Ataque quÃ mico y microscÃ ³pica Ã ³ptica. Ã · OBJETIVOS Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introducir al estudiante en la tÃ ©cnica del ataque quÃ mico como herramienta para revelar la microestructura de probetas preparadas metalogrÃ ¡ficamente. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conocer las partes constituyentes, usos y cuidados del Microscopio Ãâptico (MO) Ã · INTRODUCCIÃâN TEÃâRICA: Sin duda, desde el punto de vista cientÃ fico-tÃ ©cnico, el aliado mÃ ¡s importante del ingeniero de materiales es el microscopio, debido a que gracias a Ã ©l, se puede observar la microestructura, responsable directa del comportamiento mecÃ ¡nico y fisicoquÃ mico de los materiales. El microscopio utilizado para el anÃ ¡lisis microestructural de materiales se denomina microscopio Ã ³ptico metalogrÃ ¡fico (MO), el cual difiere de los microscopios comunes, en que funciona con luz reflejada sobre la muestra y no con luz transmitida a travÃ ©s de Ã ©sta. Luego del pulido, la microestructura del material se ve ocultada por una pequeÃ ±a capa de metal distorsionado y plÃ ¡sticamente deformado, que puede ser disuelto a travÃ ©s del uso de diversas sustancias quÃ micas, denominadas reactivos, las cuales actÃ ºan generando un proceso de corrosiÃ ³n selectiva que permite, dependiendo del caso, hacer visibles aspectos microestructurales tales como los lÃ mites de grano y las diferentes fases que conforman una aleaciÃ ³n. Ã · PREPARACIÃâN PREVIA: Antes de realizar la prÃ ¡ctica el estudiante debe indagar sobre los siguientes aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo de la misma: v TeorÃ a del ataque quÃ mico y reactivos quÃ micos mÃ ¡s usuales para el ataque de aleaciones ferrosas y no ferrosas. v Toxicidad y manejo de los reactivos indagados. v TeorÃ a del funcionamiento del microscopio metalogrÃ ¡fico y sus diferencias con el microscopio biolÃ ³gico. v Usos, partes constituyentes y cuidados del microscopio metalogrÃ ¡fico. Se recomienda ademÃ ¡s que el estudiante venga al momento de la prÃ ¡ctica preparado con suficiente algodÃ ³n para preservar su probeta, asÃ como tambiÃ ©n con un recipiente apropiado para resguardarla. DeberÃ ¡ tambiÃ ©n procurarse un par de guantes de lÃ ¡tex, de tipo cirujano, para las labores de ataque quÃ mico. Ã · DESARROLLO EXPERIMENTAL: Materiales y Equipos: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Muestra (s) metÃ ¡lica (s) pulida (s). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reactivos quÃ micos. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Pinzas para sujeciÃ ³n de probetas. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Guantes de LÃ ¡tex. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Microscopio Ãâptico. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alcohol. Ã¢â¬ ¢ AlgodÃ ³n y recipiente para guardar las probetas. Ã · Procedimiento Experimental: . Ataque quÃ mico de la superficie pulida y observaciÃ ³n al microscopio. Este es otro de los aspectos crÃ ticos de la preparaciÃ ³n metalogrÃ ¡fica, y el que quizÃ ¡ requiere de mÃ ¡s cuidados a la hora de ser implantado. CuÃ dese de evitar el contacto de los reactivos quÃ micos con su piel o con los ojos y utilice guantes de lÃ ¡tex y pinzas para sujetar la probeta mientras la sumerge en los reactivos de ataque. Evite la aspiraciÃ ³n de los gases generados durante la reacciÃ ³n de ataque y trate en lo posible de trabajar dentro de la campana de gases. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ataque su muestra con el reactivo que usted haya seleccionado de acuerdo a las caracterÃ sticas de su muestra. Existen varias tÃ ©cnicas, pero puede hacerlo por inmersiÃ ³n de la superficie pulida en el reactivo, o pasando delicadamente un algodÃ ³n impregnado del reactivo sobre la superficie. Si tiene alguna duda plantÃ ©esela al instructor. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Una vez completado el tiempo de ataque, lave cuidadosamente su muestra bajo el chorro de agua, rocÃ ela con alcohol. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Observe la muestra al microscopio y si Ã ©sta resulta sobreatacada, repita el proceso de desbaste fino (lijado) desde el Ã ºltimo papel (grano mÃ ¡s fino) y vuelva a pulir en los paÃ ±os su muestra. Vuelva a atacar acortando el tiempo del proceso. Si la pieza resulta subatacada, sÃ ³lo tiene que continuar el ataque por mÃ ¡s tiempo. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Observe muestra al microscopio bajo supervisiÃ ³n del instructor, con ayuda del encargado del laboratorio y fundamentÃ ¡ndose en el criterio que debe haber desarrollado a la luz de sus conocimientos y de su preparaciÃ ³n previa a la prÃ ¡ctica. PRÃ CTICA NO. 13 ENSAYO JOMINY * Objetivos 1.1 Aplicar el MÃ ©todo Jominy para determinar la templabilidad de los aceros. 1.2 Interpretar los resultados del Ensayo Jominy. Aplicar estos resultados en la clasificaciÃ ³n de los aceros en funciÃ ³n de la templabilidad. 1.3 Determinar el perfil de temperaturas y de velocidades de enfriamiento. 1.4 Relacionar las velocidades de enfriamiento con las microestructuras obtenidas en las diferentes zonas de la probeta Jominy. 1.5 Evaluar la eficiencia del sistema enfriante y corroborar la validez del ensayo Jominy. * Pre-laboratorio: Antes de realizar la prÃ ¡ctica el estudiante debe indagar sobre los siguientes aspectos, relacionados con el desarrollo de la misma. 3.1 Curvas Jominy para el acero a ser ensayado. 3.2 Influencia de los elementos de aleaciÃ ³n en la templabilidad de los aceros. 3.3 RelaciÃ ³n entre el Ensayo Jominy y las curvas tiempo temperatura transformaciÃ ³n. 3.4 Factores que afectan a los ensayos de dureza y escala de dureza a utilizar. 3.5 QuÃ © puntos realmente interesan de la curva Jominy. 3.6 CaracterÃ sticas de las transformaciones perlÃ ticas y martensÃ ticas. 3.7 CaracterÃ sticas del Ensayo Jominy. Ã · Materiales Una probeta Jominy de acero AISI 1045, de dimensiones estandarizadas de acuerdo a la norma ASTM. Adicionalmente, Ã ©stas deben estar perforadas sobre la superficie opuesta al extremo a ser templado. * Procedimiento En el Laboratorio de Tratamientos TÃ ©rmicos: Se introduce la probeta Jominy en el horno de tratamiento tÃ ©rmico, el cual ha sido precalentado a la temperatura de austenizaciÃ ³n adecuada. La temperatura y el tiempo de permanencia de la probeta en el horno debe haber sido especificados y determinados por Ud. Recuerde: El cÃ ¡lculo adecuado de las variables de operaciÃ ³n en este caso; temperatura y tiempo, influyen en forma determinante en los resultados del ensayo. Luego de haber transcurrido el tiempo de mantenimiento, extraiga rÃ ¡pidamente la probeta del horno y colÃ ³quela en el sostÃ ©n de la cuba Jominy. Anteriormente debe haber comprobado que dicha cuba cumple con todos los requisitos establecidos en la norma. Realice el enfriamiento durante el tiempo estipulado en la norma antes mencionada. Una vez transcurrido el tiempo de ensayo, retire la probeta del sostÃ ©n y termÃ nela de enfriar en agua. 5.1.4 Practicas en el Laboratorio de Maquinas-Herramientas CILINDRADO INTERIOR EN EL TORNO Objetivo Hacer un agujero de un diÃ ¡metro y longitud determinada a una pieza metÃ ¡lica Materiales y equipos Pieza metÃ ¡lica Broca Mandril Cuchilla para trabajar interior Refrigerante (taladrina) Torno Procedimiento 1Ã º Se coloca la pieza en el plato 2Ã º Se gradÃ ºa el torno a la velocidad adecuada 3Ã º Se monta el mandril en el cabezal mÃ ³vil y luego se coloca la broca en el mandril 4Ã º Se lleva el cabezal mÃ ³vil hasta que la punta de la broca roce el centro de la pieza 5Ã º Se acciona la palanca de arranque del torno y con una manivela que tiene el cabezal mÃ ³vil en la parte posterior se le da profundidad del agujero que se desea hacer; el ancho del agujero lo determina el diÃ ¡metro de la broca o la cantidad de corte que se le de al agujero con la cuchilla de interior FRESADORA La fresadora es una mÃ ¡quina herramienta en la cual la pieza estÃ ¡ fija y la herramienta es la que gira para efectuar el corte. 1. Base 2. Cuerpo 3. Caja de cambio ce avances 4. Palanca para el cambio de los avances 5. Caja de cambio de velocidades 6. Tirante para la fijaciÃ ³n del eje portafresa 7. Eje principal 8. Palanca para el cambio de las velocidades 9. Puente 10. Volante para el desplazamiento del puente 11. Eje portafresa 12. Soporte intermedio del eje portafresa 13. GuÃ as del puente 14. Soporte extremo del eje portafresa 15. Riostras 16. Ranura central de la mesa 17. Manivela para traslaciÃ ³n horizontal de la mesa 18. Mesa 19. GuÃ as de la mesa 20. Volante para el desplazamiento transversal de la mesa 21. Volante para la traslaciÃ ³n horizontal de la mesa 22. GuÃ as para el carro portamesa 22. Manivela para la traslaciÃ ³n vertical de la mÃ ©nsula 23. Carro portamesa 24. Manivela para la traslaciÃ ³n vertical de la mÃ ©nsula 25. Palanca para el desplazamiento automÃ ¡tico transversal y horizontal de la masa 26. Columna soporte de la mÃ ©nsula 27. Palanca para la fijaciÃ ³n de la mÃ ©nsula 28. Palanca para la inversiÃ ³n de avance 29. Husillo para la traslaciÃ ³n vertical de la mÃ ©nsula 30. MÃ ©nsula 31. GuÃ a para la mÃ ©nsula 32. Eje de transmisiÃ ³n de los avances FRESAS Las fresas tienen formas algo complicadas y puede decirse que estÃ ¡n compuestas por un conjunto de elementos, cada uno de los cuales intervienen en diferente medida en el corte del material. Los distintos elementos de las fresas se designan con tÃ ©rminos tÃ ©cnicos que, en conjunto, forman la nomenclatura o terminologÃ a de las fresas. Varios de ellos pueden ser: Cuerpo de la fresa Arista de corte Periferia DiÃ ¡metro Caras y ancho de las fresas Cara del diente o cara del corte Cara de incidencia Ã ngulo de incidencia Ã ngulo de desprendimiento de viruta Ã ngulo de filo Ã ngulo de hÃ ©lice PrÃ ¡ctica NO. 20 FRESADO PLANO Objetivo Hacer una pieza con una cara plana Materiales y equipos Barra de aluminio Fresa frontal de dos cortes Refrigerante Fresadora Procedimiento 1Ã º Se monta una prensa o tornillo de sujeciÃ ³n en la mesa de la fresadora y se sujeta la barra en la prensa 2Ã º Se monta la fresa en el eje porta fresas 3Ã º Se gradÃ ºa la velocidad en la caja de cambio de velocidades 4Ã º Con la manivela para la traslaciÃ ³n vertical de la mensura se le da la profundidad de corte a la pieza 5Ã º Con el volante para la traslaciÃ ³n horizontal de la mesa se procede a darle el corte a la pieza Los pasos 4 y 5 se repiten hasta que la pieza llegue al grosor deseado. Nota: Este procedimiento se emplea tambiÃ ©n para el fresado frontal y para una combinaciÃ ³n de ambos al mismo tiempo (fresado plano y frontal). Lo Ã ºnico que cambia es el emplear la fresadora. RANURA EN FORMA DE V Objetivo Hacer un canal en forma de V a lo largo de toda la pieza Materiales y equipos Pieza rectangular Fresa angular doble Refrigerante Fresadora Procedimiento 1Ã º Se sujeta la pieza a la mesa de la fresadora 2Ã º Se monta la frase angular doble en el eje porta fresas 3Ã º Se gradÃ ºa la velocidad en la caja de cambio de velocidades 4Ã º Con la manivela para la traslaciÃ ³n vertical de la mÃ ©nsula se le da la profundidad de corte a la pieza 5Ã º Se acciona la palanca para el desplazamiento automÃ ¡tico horizontal de la mesa y se efectÃ ºa el corte a lo largo de la pieza Nota: Este procedimiento es el mismo a seguir para las siguientes operaciones: Hacer una ranura semicircular Hacer tornos de secciÃ ³n semicircular Hacer chaveteros Hacer ranuras en forma de T Hacer ranuras en cola de milano La Ã ºnica diferencia que hay entre estas operaciones es la forma de la fresa. PrÃ ¡ctica NO. 22 ENGRANAJE Objetivo Hacer un piÃ ±Ã ³n o engranaje Materiales y equipos Barra de aluminio Cuchilla para cilindrar Fresa de modulo Refrigerante Torno Fresadora Mandril Broca Procedimiento 1Ã º Se coloca la barra en el plato del torno 2Ã º Se monta la cuchilla para cilindrar en la torre en forma para cilindrar 3Ã º Se gradÃ ºa la velocidad en la caja de cambio y la profundidad de corte en el carro transversal 4Ã º Se acciona la palanca de arranque y se procede a trabajar la pieza con el carro longitudinal hasta llegar al diÃ ¡metro requerido para el piÃ ±Ã ³n o engranaje 5Ã º Se coloca la cuchilla en posiciÃ ³n para refrentar y se procede a hacer dicho operaciÃ ³n hasta llegar al espesor requerido 6Ã º Se hace un agujero pasante en el centro de la pieza de diÃ ¡metro que ajuste en el eje que va a ser montado el piÃ ±Ã ³n. Este agujero se hace con una broca montado en un mandril el cual va montado en el cabezal mÃ ³vil 7Ã º Se desmonta la pieza del torno y se fija en el divisor que estÃ ¡ sobre la mesa de la fresadora 8Ã º Se coloca la fresa de mÃ ³dulo en el eje porta fresa y se gradÃ ºa la velocidad y la profundidad de corte 9Ã º La cara plana de la pieza debe quedar perpendicular a la fresa 10Ã º Con los cÃ ¡lculos obtenidos de antemano se procede a trabajar la pieza. DespuÃ ©s del primer corte se debe de dar el nÃ ºmero de vueltas necesario al plato divisor, para dar el segundo corte y formar el primer diente; este Ã ºltimo procedimiento se realiza hasta que todos los dientes queden formados LIMADORA PrÃ ¡ctica No. 23 Objetivo Hacer una pieza de superficie plana 1. Mesa (Con letras A, B, C y D) Materiales y equipos Una barra de acero Una cuchilla Refrigerante (aceite o taladrina) Limadora Procedimiento 1Ã º Se fija la pieza en la mesa 2Ã º Se gradÃ ºa el avance de la mesa, la profundidad de corte y el nÃ ºmero de golpes del cabezal o carnero 3Ã º Se repite el nÃ ºmero de corte hasta llegar a la longitud y el espesor requerido PrÃ ¡ctica No. 24 Objetivo: Hacer un maquinado en la fresadora CNC Procedimiento: La seguridad primero * AsegÃ ºrese de que todos saben dÃ ³nde estÃ ¡ y cÃ ³mo se activa el botÃ ³n de parada de emergencia * Nunca deje objetos extraÃ ±os en el Ã ¡rea de maquinado (calibres, cepillos, latas de lubricantes, piezas ya maquinadas, etc.) * En ninguna circunstancia trate de acceder a la zona de maquinado mientras haya partes en movimiento * Use las herramientas provistas para ajustar puntas y fresas. La secuencia de operaciones: 1. Comience la ejecuciÃ ³n con el software de maquinado, en realidad virtual (VRT o VRM) 2. Cargue, cree o edite su programa de CNC 3. Actualice la configuraciÃ ³n de herramientas que tiene cargada el software 4. Simule el programa de maquinado en 2D o 3D (aunque es menos vistosa, la simulaciÃ ³n en 2D es sumamente Ã ºtil y clara) 5. Encienda su mÃ ¡quina de CNC 6. Lleve los ejes a la posiciÃ ³n de reposo (desde la lengÃ ¼eta Home) 7. Prepare las herramientas de la mÃ ¡quina, de manera que se correspondan con la configuraciÃ ³n que cargÃ ³ en el software 8. Cargue la pieza de materia prima en el plato o banco 9. Ajuste el offset de la pieza y las herramientas Ejecute el maquinado Practica NO. 25 Objetivo: Hacer un torneado cÃ ³nico en el torno CNC Procedimiento: Funcionamiento del ciclo G81 en cada paso de torneado. Forma en la que se realiza cada paso de torneado: * 1-2: Desplazamiento en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00). * 2-3: Desplazamiento al avance programado en G01. * 3-4: Si se programa el parÃ ¡metro D, el desplazamiento es en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00) Si no se programa el parÃ ¡metro D, el desplazamiento es al avance programado en G01, siguiendo el perfil (este es nuestro caso). 4-5: Desplazamiento de retroceso en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00). Practica NO.26 Objetivo: Hacer un torneado de tramos curvos IntroducciÃ ³n: Funcionamiento general del ciclo fijo G84. * Este ciclo realiza el cilindrado de un tramo curvo. * El tramo se definirÃ ¡ programando los valores de los diferentes parÃ ¡metros que componen el ciclo (los parÃ ¡metros se explican en mÃ ¡s adelante). * El ciclo mantiene el paso de profundidad especificado entre las sucesivas pasadas del cilindrado. * El ciclo realiza el cilindrado en desbaste y permite seleccionar, si se desea realizar una pasada de acabado con la misma herramienta tras finalizar el desbaste o no. Forma en la que se realiza cada paso de torneado: * 1-2: Desplazamiento en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00). * 2-3: Desplazamiento al avance programado en G01. * 3-4: Si se programa el parÃ ¡metro D, el desplazamiento es en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00). Si no se programa el parÃ ¡metro D, el desplazamiento es al avance programado en G01, siguiendo el perfil (este es nuestro caso). * 4-5: Desplazamiento de retroceso en avance rÃ ¡pido (G00). TALADRADORA PrÃ ¡ctica: 27 Objetivo Hacer un agujero a una plancha de metal Materiales y equipos Plancha de metal Broca Mandril Prensa o tornillo de sujeciÃ ³n Refrigerante Taladradora Procedimiento 1Ã º Se monta el mandril en el eje principal y la broca en el mandril 2Ã º Se monta la prensa en la mesa superior y la plancha se sujeta en la prensa 3Ã º Con el volante para el avance sensitivo se procede a hacer el agujero Esmerilado: Es un proceso de remociÃ ³n de material en el cual las partÃ culas abrasivas estÃ ¡n contenidas en una rueda de esmeril que opera a velocidad superficial muy alta. La rueda de esmeril tiene forma de disco balanceado con toda precisiÃ ³n para soportar altas velocidades de rotaciÃ ³n. MÃ ©todo de Ruta Critica para el cÃ ¡lculo de las actividades en el Laboratorio. El anÃ ¡lisis comienza con una descripciÃ ³n del proyecto en tÃ ©rmino de de actividades y eventos. A- Comienzo de obtenciÃ ³n de materiales B- TerminaciÃ ³n de obtenciÃ ³n de materiales pieza 1 C- TerminaciÃ ³n de obtenciÃ ³n de materiales pieza 2 D- TerminaciÃ ³n de trabajo de mÃ ¡quina pieza 1 E- TerminaciÃ ³n de trabajo de mÃ ¡quina pieza 2 F- Comienzo de ensamble G- TerminaciÃ ³n de ensamble H- TerminaciÃ ³n de inspecciÃ ³n y prueba Este modelo puede variar dependiendo del tipo de pieza Control de Calidad en Cada PrÃ ¡ctica El control incluye una secuencia universal de pasos: v Elegir un sujeto de control v Seleccionar una unidad de medida v Establecer una meta para el sujeto de control v Seleccionar un sensor v Medir el desempeÃ ±o real v Interpretar la diferencia entre estÃ ¡ndar y real v Realizar una acciÃ ³n sobre esa diferencia Proceso de ProducciÃ ³n El proceso de producciÃ ³n es el procedimiento tÃ ©cnico que se utiliza en el proyecto para obtener los bienes y servicios a partir de insumos, y se identifica como la transformaciÃ ³n de una serie de insumos para convertirlos en productos mediante una determinada funciÃ ³n de producciÃ ³n. Conclusiones: Las prÃ ¡cticas presentadas cumplen con el marco de referencia educativo dominicano que tiene como funciÃ ³n garantizar la eficiencia y la eficacia global del mismo. Se ha tomado en cuenta la evaluaciÃ ³n de los procesos docentes y los servicios que intervienen en la actividad educativa para satisfacer las necesidades de la sociedad: v El rendimiento de los aprendizajes alcanzados por los estudiantes; v El grado de coherencia alcanzado entre los fines educativos, las estrategias para alcanzarlos y los resultados; v La inversiÃ ³n de recursos, su racionalidad y adecuaciÃ ³n que garanticen la puesta en prÃ ¡ctica de la acciÃ ³n educativa; v El peso de la innovaciÃ ³n, la investigaciÃ ³n y la experimentaciÃ ³n educativas; v Las caracterÃ sticas socioeconÃ ³mica, afectiva, fÃ sica y social del alumno; v Las caracterÃ sticas personales y profesionales de los educadores, la calidad de vida y las facilidades de que dispongan; v La programaciÃ ³n acadÃ ©mica, los contenidos curriculares y los materiales didÃ ¡cticos, deben estar en constante actualizaciÃ ³n; v Los procesos de aprendizaje. v Las condiciones fÃ sicas desde el punto de vista del ambiente en que se desarrolla la actividad educativa, incluyendo aulas, laboratorios, bibliotecas, canchas deportivas, Ã ¡reas de recreaciÃ ³n, servicios de agua potable e iluminaciÃ ³n y equipamiento; v El grado de compromiso y la intervenciÃ ³n de la familia, el hogar y la comunidad en el proceso educativo; v La orientaciÃ ³n educativa y profesional; La investigaciÃ ³n educativa que se aplica para identificar los problemas del sistema y adoptar los correctivos a los mismos. v Se deberÃ ¡n integrar las prÃ ¡cticas de corto tiempo para que se puedan ejecutar todas las prÃ ¡cticas durante el semestre ya que el nÃ ºmero de prÃ ¡cticas excede al nÃ ºmero de semanas. 6. AdministraciÃ ³n de las Adquisiciones del Proyecto El conjunto de actividades comprendidas en el quehacer de la funciÃ ³n adquisiciones conforman, normalmente, el segundo bloque de la lÃ nea crÃ tica en proyectos complejos. En un sentido amplio, su tarea consiste n abastecer la obra con todos los elementos necesarios (maquinaria, equipos, repuestos, instrumentos, instalaciones, suministros de construcciÃ ³n y servicios), en las condiciones de costo, calidad y oportunidad, requeridas por el proyecto. Una caracterÃ stica sobresaliente de las adquisiciones es su estrecha interrelaciÃ ³n con las demÃ ¡s funciones, sobre todo en proyectos intensivos en bienes de capital de origen importado, tecnolÃ ³gicamente complejos, con programaciÃ ³n acelerada (ruta rÃ ¡pida) o financiamientos condicionados. Las formas en que es posible abordar el abastecimiento de maquinarias, equipos y suministros, son variadas, si se tiene en cuenta el tamaÃ ±o del proyecto, la existencia y confiabilidad de los servicios de la organizaciÃ ³n perm anente, la complejidad de las adquisiciones, y la modalidad que se defina para los contratos de construcciÃ ³n. DiseÃ ±o de Formularios y Mecanismos de Control AdquisiciÃ ³n de equipos El laboratorio debe disponer de polÃ tica y procedimiento para la selecciÃ ³n y adquisiciÃ ³n de los equipos, que incluya: * EspecificaciÃ ³n de las caracterÃ sticas necesarias, de acuerdo con los requisitos de tolerancias e incertidumbres. * SelecciÃ ³n y evaluaciÃ ³n de los proveedores. El laboratorio debe evaluar a los proveedores y mantener un registro de estas evaluaciones. Es recomendable, siempre que sea posible, seleccionar los suministradores que cumplen con la Norma UNE-EN ISO/IEC 17025 o que tienen implantado un sistema de calidad acorde, por ejemplo, con las normas ISO 9000. * Requisitos solicitados al proveedor, tales como: documentaciÃ ³n, certificado de calibraciÃ ³n o verificaciÃ ³n, periodo de garantÃ a, periodo de entrega, etc. En la adquisiciÃ ³n de los equipos nuevos el laboratorio deberÃ a exigirle, a los fabricantes o distribuidores, la disponibilidad del Manual de Instrucciones del equipo en espaÃ ±ol. * AnÃ ¡lisis de las ofertas frente a las especificaciones y selecciÃ ³n de los equipos. Todas las actividades, relacionadas con la compra de los equipos y materiales, convienen documentarlas y archivarlas. RecepciÃ ³n de equipos Cuando el laboratorio recibe el equipo o material debe constatar, en primer lugar, que: * Se corresponde con las caracterÃ sticas y especificaciones del pedido o solicitud de adquisiciÃ ³n, * Va acompaÃ ±ado de la documentaciÃ ³n adecuada y completa (por ejemplo los certificados de calibraciÃ ³n o conformidad, si son necesarios). * El laboratorio debe tener establecido un procedimiento que * Asegure que los equipos recibidos no sean utilizados o puestos en * servicio hasta que: * Se haya comprobado que no han sufrido ningÃ ºn daÃ ±o y funcionan * correctamente, * Hayan sido calibrados o verificados, cuando se considere necesario, * De que cumplen las especificaciones requeridas, debiendo mantenerse un registro de las medidas adoptadas para comprobarlo. Los equipos recibidos, cuando ya estÃ ©n disponibles o instalados para realizar la funciÃ ³n para la cual han sido adquiridos, deben darse de alta, codificarse y etiquetarse, y ser incluidos en el inventario de los equipos disponibles del laboratorio. Inventario y codificaciÃ ³n de equipos El inventario o listado (o base de datos) de los equipos disponibles debe incluir, como mÃ nimo, los equipos utilizados para realizar ensayos y/o calibraciones que tengan una relaciÃ ³n directa con los resultados, asÃ como aquellos equipos auxiliares que requieren de algÃ ºn tipo de control, mantenimiento, verificaciÃ ³n o calibraciÃ ³n. En el inventario deberÃ ¡ constar la fecha de su elaboraciÃ ³n y, como mÃ nimo, el cÃ ³digo del equipo, la denominaciÃ ³n del equipo, la marca, el modelo, el no. de serie, y la fecha de alta. El cÃ ³digo del laboratorio debe identificar al equipo de forma univoca y permitir relacionarlo con la documentaciÃ ³n que se va generando (etiquetas, ficha/registro, procedimientos de funcionamiento, de mantenimiento y calibraciÃ ³n, registros de datos, certificados de calibraciÃ ³n, diarios de uso, etc.) y con su historial a lo largo de los aÃ ±os (averÃ as, sustituciones, modificaciones, etc.). El laboratorio debe mantener actualizado el inventario de los equipos disponibles, para ello serÃ ¡ necesario establecer un procedimiento del control y/o comunicaciÃ ³n (por ejemplo, mediante impresos) de las altas, bajas o traslado