Saturday, August 31, 2019
Value Creation in the Global Apparel Industry Case Analysis #3 By Deborah Bennett Julie Bryan Wynette Gayle Vivian Pankey Neisha Vitello Executive Summary Zara is the flagship fashion retail company under the parent corporation Inditex. First opened in Spain, Zara currently has a network of 1,292 stores spread across 72 countries. The infrastructure Zara has built is a core competency. Their innovations to bring new fashion designs to market faster than competitors differentiates Zara from their rivals.Managers believe the allure of Zara is the freshness of its offerings, the creation of a sense of exclusiveness, an attractive in-store ambience, and positive word of mouth (Daniels, Radenbaugh, Sullivan, 2011). The strategic innovations in design, production, logistics, distribution, and retailing activities have made Zara a global leader that is now moving into the United States. This paper will examine five of the external influences that will shape the response and ultimately the s uccess Zara will have adapting to the physical, social and competitive factors in the United States clothing retail industry.The external influences examined will be; competitive dynamics, economic conditions, technology standards and trends, cultural orientation, and customer expectations. Zara continues expansion in the Untied States, currently with 49 stores coast to coast. Their differentiation strategy has been successful (Maiellaro, 2010). ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy and business design leave rivals with less time to figure out how to better configure and coordinate operations. As U. S. competitors attempt to follow ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s lead, Zara continues to set the pace and increase the distance between them and the competition.Issue Identification Zara came to the United States, first in New York City in 1989. With more than ten years in the states and 49 locations Zara is making their mark in the fashion industry. With the external influences impacting ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s management vision , strategy, value creation and firm performance, how does Zara continue to create value with their differentiation strategy in the U. S. fashion market? External Influence #1: Competitive Dynamics Zara has taken the industry standard of a six-month time frame to create and produce new clothing lines to only two weeks (Daniels, et al 2011).Breaking the industry standard in getting fashion to the public is the competitive advantage Zara is best known for. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s other strengthÃ¢â¬â¢s include logistics, marketing, store operations and firm infrastructure. Zara spends less than 1 percent of its revenue on advertising (Daniels, et al 2011). Zara is dependent on word of mouth advertising from its shoppers who tend to be loyal to the brand. Marketing is another key advantage Zara has over the competition, which can spend up to 3 to 4 percent of their revenue on advertising.External Influence #2: Economic Conditions Current Economic Conditions in the U. S. appear to show that it is in a Ã¢â¬Å"disappointingly sluggishÃ¢â¬ (June 2010) recovery. While the U. S. does not appear to be in the downward trend that everyone was concerned with in, growth will remain stagnant or slow. Consumer confidence appears to be at the highest level in two years (Dennis, 2010), but the unemployment rate does not fall below 9 percent (Isidore, 2010) for the next year, and it is unknown if we will ever see the unemployment rate low of 4. percent in 2007 (Isidore, 2010). The good news is that inflation does not appear to be an issue, as it remains steady for the next three years (Isidore, 2010). The economic conditions in the United States for ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s do not appear to be at the best point for rapid growth, although with ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s unique way of doing business growth is possible. The economic slowdown, high unemployment, and other economic factors pointing in the wrong direction, ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s growth in the U. S. Market will need to be carefully monitored. External Influe nce #3: Technology Standards and TrendsA cultural aspect of the American Shopper is her expectation of value or reasonableness. This direction is in line with ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s aim to democratize fashion by offering the latest fashion in medium quality at affordable prices. In the USA, the GAP has already been identified as tapping into this market. One of the ways that Zara? s business model is differentiated from that of its competitors is the turnaround time and the store as a source of information. The store acts not only as a point of sale but also influences the design and speed of production. It is the end and starting point of the business system. Zara? managers get feedback from the customers at the point of sales and in turn these managers report the demands of customers and the sales trends to the headquarters on a daily basis. This business model augurs well in America today with the technological advancements of the Hi-tech age with computer and cell phones, 24-7 news circu s and talk show now becoming the new norm. External Influence #4: Cultural Orientations ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s secret, according to CEO Jose Castellano, is its reliance on communication, and the way it uses existing technology to take control of almost every aspect of design, production and distribution. This Ã¢â¬Ëfast fashionÃ¢â¬â¢ system depends on a constant exchange of information throughout every part of Zara's supply chainÃ¢â¬âfrom customers to store managers, from store managers to market specialists and designers, from designers to production staff, from buyers to subcontractors, from warehouse managers to distributors, and so on. Ã¢â¬ Zara has made enormous efforts to ensure that operational procedures, performance measures, and even store and office layouts are designed to make information transfer easy.It can therefore be concluded that information management is one of core activities for Zara to leverage its Ã¢â¬Ëfast fashionÃ¢â¬â¢ system. This model is in direct re lations to the cultural orientation of the American Shopper who likes to be fashionable and that right after the red carpet event. External Influence #5: Customer Expectations Americans have many choices in fashion styles and price range, from boutique to large chain to discount fashion warehouses. Zara meets customer expectations with fashions superior to or different from alternatives that are available from rivals.With their grassroots marketing research performed by agents on the store floors, Zara has perfected technology to be able to incorporate customer comments into designs through wireless, handheld organizers carried around the store (Daniels et al. , 2011). On the Zara website is the following: Ã¢â¬ËWhat do you think of the collection? Are these looks that you would like to recreate? I love to hear your opinions every week Ã¢â¬â and I always take suggestions into consideration! If you have any looks youÃ¢â¬â¢d like recreated here, let me know!Be sure to leave a co mmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Rachel, 2010). This channel of customer/company interaction ensures Zara continues to deliver what customers want in fashion. The Internet feedback will especially serve the U. S. market as Americans are very accustomed to writing product reviews on retail web sites. Zara instills a sense of urgency in the shoppersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind because the style they see in the store today may not be there next week. This dynamic plays well in the urban Americans shopping style that has ready access to the store front windows in malls or the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s fashion districts.The average Zara customer visits the chain seventeen times per year versus three to four visits per year at competitors. Anyone with the shopping style of Ã¢â¬Å"let me look around first and then come backÃ¢â¬ , will lose out on the Zara design. Exposure to current fashion trends are in every medium in the U. S. ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to deliver almost immediately on what is hot will bode well in meeting customer e xpectations in the U. S. market. Recommendations and Conclusion Zara has taken advantage of its core competencies: competitive advantage, economic condition, technology standards and trends, cultural orientation, and customer expectation.This well organized firm uses logistical design in all areas of its operations. Getting high fashion clothing to the public much quicker than the competition and at a reasonable price has led the organization to the top. While this Ã¢â¬Å"fast trackÃ¢â¬ clothing idea is new and still in vogue, Zara needs to constantly be looking at ways to improve their product line and business model as the competition moves in on their competitive advantage. Staying ahead of other retailers by continuing to evaluate their design, sourcing, production, logistics, marketing, store operations, and firm infrastructure is key.While Zara is spreading worldwide, they may need to adjust their distribution centers a bit, in order to keep their speed maintain their pace, particularly in the US market. As they get larger the firm grows , they may not be able to keep up with demand unless they adjust their logistics chain accordingly.References 2010, November 22. http://www. modernights. com/shop/zaraclothing/zara_stores_usa/ Daniels, Radebaugh, ; Sullivan. (2011). International Business, Environments ; Operations 13th Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Education, Inc. Dutta, Devangshu. (2002). retail @ the speed of fashion. Retrieved from http://www. 3isite. com/articles/ImagesFashion_Zara_Part_I. pdf Galaugher, John, Information Systems, A Zara Case Study: Fast Fashion from Savvy Systems, accessed November 24, 2010, http://www. flatworldknowledge. com/node/41223 Gattorna, Dr. John. (2009, Jan. /Feb. ) Supply Chain Organisation Design-The Secret Sauce of Peak Performance. Retrieved from http://www. slideshare. net/ The Supply chainniche/supply-chain-organisation-design-the-secret-sauce-of-peak Jacobe, Dennis, November 2010, U. S. Econo mic Confidence Improves to Match 2010 High,, Gallup, accessed November 24, 2010, http://www. gallup. com/poll/144344/economic-confidence-improves-match-2010-high. aspx June 2010, Current Economic Conditions, Econbrowser, Accessed November 24, 2010 http://www. econbrowser. com/archives/2010/06/current_economi_4. html Lopez, Carmen, Fan, Ying, Internationalisation of Spanish Fashion Brand Zara , Brunel Business School Brunel University Uxbridge UB8 3PH England Maiellaro, Bridget. (2010, January 5). Zara Opens Two Chicago Stores. Retrieved from http://www. chicagomag. om/Radar/Sales-Check/January-2010/Zara-Opens-Two-Chicago-Stores/ Rachel-Northeastern. (2010, May 10). Runway for Under $25: Zara Spring 2010. Retrieved from http://www. collegefashion. net/fashion-tips/runway-for-under-25-zara-may-2010/ Towers, Steve. (2010). Zen and the Art of Process Management. http://www. towers associates. com/Towers_Associates_Zen_And_the_Art_of_Process_Management. Html Ã¢â¬Å"ZaraÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Model, Information and Communication Technologies, and Competitive Analysis. Ã¢â¬ 123HelpMe. com. 26 Nov 2010 http://www. 123HelpMe. com/view. asp? id=97642
Friday, August 30, 2019
Use Linked In account for high business development Linked In recommended for business The connectivity of Linked In is very big. It has connected around 260 million members in about 200 countries globally. This website lends an apt platform for similar individuals to connect, share and discuss various ideas. It is true that social media sites aim for associating Individuals. But at the same time, various account holders are making use of Linked In account for rapid business development. Linked In tips for workability of businessThe Linked In is a type of social media which gives help to job workers as well as businessmen. A good understanding is required to promote business successfully in the current scenario. Some good tips as well as ideas for making use of Linked In are listed below: 0 Showcase yourself as a nice businessman In current profile. It does not mean that you have to state about your current profession In the profile. With business details, mention full Information ab out personal details In your profile.If anyone wants to ilk to you, they would peep out in your profile first. You should make your profile in such a way that you look as a very decent and authentic businessman. Choose recent photograph as your display picture. 0 Make use of Linked In for taking out leads. This website consists of millions of users as well as It provides good chance to connect with various professionals or similar people who can get profit from using various services or products. How to use Linked In to pick up fresh leads?.When you get request from someone, take benefit of It. Visit profile in detail as well as find out their requirement. Give them information regarding activity or business with the help of mail and send welcome mail to your connected friends. 0 Watch out people who would benefit you in business. Add people of similar background. When you visit someone's profile then they would know and will tend to vaults your profile also. This may lead to adding connection with that individual. 0 Always post valuable information. Keep strict time schedule for your postings.By costing fascinating content, you could create interest among users. Write Intelligent comments on other's posts. Ask your connections to comment on your posts too. Value friendship then you can promote your business easily. Many business people have active accounts and you can find good prospects for your website design in Jasper business too. There is a website design company in Jasper known as Efforts Unlimited which has been developing websites and has been doing website promotion like SMS with the help of social networking sites like face book,
Thursday, August 29, 2019
What is Chivalry Originally Latin, actually spelled Ã¢â¬Å"caballariusÃ¢â¬ and pronounced Ã¢â¬Å"SHivÃâ¢lrÃâÃ¢â¬ , is chivalry. Chivalry is the combination of qualities expected of an ideal knight. Such qualities include honor, courtesy, courage, justice, and willing to assist those in need. If one is chivalrous in character, then one is a gentleman and noble in his good deeds. He would in no manner hesitate to serve others and serve his God. This is evident as Honore de Balzac puts it: Ã¢â¬Å"the motto of chivalry is also the motto of wisdom; to serve all, but love only one.Ã¢â¬ Chivalry, besides its original usage as Ã¢â¬Å"calvary,Ã¢â¬ can truly only be delineated in only one way, which is to refer to a virtuous code of conduct. There isnÃ¢â¬â¢t any negative connotations to the word either, unless somebody called a fellow thane chivalrous in Old Anglo-Saxon times! Other than that, the only emotional association with the word is generally positive. This noble idea of conduct is constituted of several virtues in spite of the narrow usage of the word. So, how did chivalry come into existence? Journey to the medieval times and you will discover that chivalry was once an existential characteristic of every man sworn into nobility or born into it. These men were knights. Medieval knights battled horseback and practiced outstanding gallantry. Knights were always calvary in battle, and exhibited righteous morals. A group of knights was actually called Ã¢â¬Å"the chivalryÃ¢â¬ of the militia. They were excelled in sword craft nearly comparable to their high level of graciousness, and could ride a horse well-nigh to the speed of which they are willing to assist a damsel in distress. Chivalry came to be known as the demeanor of an ideal knight, rather than simply a group of knights. As Chaucer puts it in Canterbury Tales, an ideal knight Ã¢â¬Å"loved chivalry, truth and honor, freedom and courtesy; Ã¢â¬ ¦ a very gentle, perfect knight.Ã¢â¬ Whatever happened to chivalry? Certain writers may say chivalry is dead, or it might just have a bad case of the flu. As long as wrongs are still righted, chivalry will survive. Chivalry cannot and will never die out. It may become exponentially less evident everyday, but underlying all the rudeness and discourtesy, chivalry is there. Chivalry does indeed need to be implemented more and more into society. Every single manÃ¢â¬â¢s major desire should be to act magnanimously and reveal a generous and noble state of mind. If every man were to be genuinely chivalrous then hardly would there ever be any cheating, debt, adultery, stealing, or even bad attitudes. Each and every man would be true in their religion, honest, courteous, and would have a burning passion to do what is right. Think of that chivalry based utopian society. A world where people were more worried about humbling themselves rather than raising themselves up would be phenomenal. Modern chivalry should predominate like it did with Sir Lancelot around Queen Guinevere. Contemporary America could learn from John BowringÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ChivalryÃ¢â¬ poem which reads: Ã¢â¬Å"Now tell me what is chivalry? To battle in the foremost fight For anythingÃ¢â¬âfor wrongÃ¢â¬âfor right, For some fair ladyÃ¢â¬â¢s scornful smile, For what is virtuous, what is vile, Come, tell me, is this chivalry? No! in the men for truth who pant, In wretchedness and woe and want, Who bear the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s contemptuous hate, With patient soul, with heart elate. No! in the woman in whose home No peace is found, no comforts come, Yet bends in silence,Ã¢â¬âfeeling still Ã¢â¬ËTis GodÃ¢â¬â¢s most kind, most holy will. ThisÃ¢â¬âthis is truest chivalry!Ã¢â¬ Chivalry essentially is the essence of all that is good, virtuous, and holy, conglomerated into one admirably cultivated code of conduct to live by.
Economics from a Historical Perspective - Essay Example The powerful class of people acquired the ownership of some people from the lower sections of the society, who would perform duties as directed by their masters. These people were called slaves. However, medieval Europe developed a somewhat similar culture of interdependency between two classes of people which was known as Ã¢â¬Å"serfdomÃ¢â¬ . The medieval serfs were actually the dependant peasants. Serfdom first developed in France, where slavery had not been practices significantly. The European countryside during the Middle Ages were the seat of large houses called Ã¢â¬Å"manorsÃ¢â¬ which were different from the Roman Ã¢â¬Å"villasÃ¢â¬ of the earlier times. These manors were built according to a typical design and were usually accompanied by large expanses of land meant for farming activities. The manors were the home of the medieval lords, who possessed considerable power and authority and were next to only the king in terms of their position. These lords used to engage p easants to carry out farming in the manor lands belonging to the lords themselves. These poor peasants usually had no land of their own and earned their living by working on the lands of their masters. In return for their services, they were allowed to live in the outhouses of the manors. They were also provided adequate protection by the lords and their armies in case of an unforeseen attack by the barbaric tribes which was common during the medieval times. However, serfdom was quite different from slavery. Here, the lords and serfs were bounded by an informal contract outlining their mutual authorities, obligations and financial relation (Phillips, 57). This marked an improvement in the conditions of the working class where they had been completely subservient to their masters during the prevalence of slavery. The population of Europe (including modern Russia) was estimated to be around 42 million in 1000 grew to about 73 million by 1300, which is recorded as the highest populatio n during the medieval times. During these three centuries, the number of European people increased by 31 million compared to an increase of only 15 million recorded during the three centuries prior to 1000. There were several reasons for this significant growth in population. During the period 1000-1300, medieval Europe was characterized by the cultivation of new lands which increased the overall food supply. The agricultural sector flourished and buoyed by the positivity in the economy, the population started increasing. The human settlement began to expand to new territories, especially to the fertile valleys of the rivers Elba and Oder. The European people moved eastwards to acquire new lands and build their livelihoods over there. They build up their new settlements in mainly three directions: to the south towards the Hungarian plain following the natural course of river Danube, to the central lowlands of Ã¢â¬Å"Thuringia, Saxony and SilesiaÃ¢â¬ and towards the north borderin g the coast of the Baltic sea which finally led to the formation of new cities such as Rostock and Konigsberg. The boundaries of the major existing cities were expanded to include more people within the cities while in the countryside, new castles were constructed and new villages were formed by the increasing population. In addition to this, there was lesser migration of the European people to other countries like Scandinavia in the north, Russia to the east etc. All these factors explained the significant increase
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
BUDD EXAM QUESTION 3 - Essay Example Collective bargaining agreement denotes a legal contract that is enforceable for a particular period between the management of a specified entity and its employees and represented by a trade union, which is independent. Union connotes a group of workers in a given organization with the intention of promoting their common interest, as well as improving their working conditions. Probationary period is a trial moment, which gives the manager the chance to assess the conduct and performance of the employee. Dismissal of Jim Norbuck was legitimate, and all due procedures were followed. It is in the policy of our company not to hire college educated. During the job application process, Norbuck provided falsifying details about him. He actively took part in the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s strike and wrote several pamphlets, which he distributed to the striking workers and urged them to maintain solidarity. It was during this period that I noticed these pamphlets and heard rumors that Norbuck was college educated. I did a thorough investigation into Norbucks background, his previous education, and his employment. After the strike had ended on March 8th, Norbuck was called back to his job position as labor pool person in the foundry department. On April 17th, I together with the local 55Ã¢â¬â¢s grievance committee and Norbuck, sat down and discussed all the issues concerning Norbuck. This then led to the dismissal of Norbuck due his misrepresentation of his personal information during his application process. The dismissal of Norbuck clearly violated the collective bargaining agreement. Leech industries clearly breached The Potentially Relevant Contracts Provisions. Article VIII explicitly states "Procedures, Suspensions, Discharges and disciplinary actions shall first be discussed with the shop steward before being put in effect. Failure to address will
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
International Marketing analysis and strategy of a given product - Essay Example The business will involve itself in heavy marketing in order to create a long-term market presence among the low income and middle income customers. Trudea Services was planned in 2005 to be a part-time business venture. It has been asmall business designed to meet the needs of its clients and their pet family members. The company is located in Kikuyu and plans to expand to other towns in response to increasing demand for solar energy appliances. The company understands the value of ourclients money and provides highly effective and efficient solar energy appliances. At Trudea Services, we accept nothing but the best from our suppliers and ourselves. Trudea Services was founded by Joseph Kamau and Anthony Kimunya. The two co-own the company and will oversee the day to day management of company operations. However, the company will hire additional members of staff when it expands its operations. The company plans to invest more than 350,000 shillings in the purchase and supply of low cost solar energy appliances to middle income and low income households in Kikuyu. This is a long term project that is expected to last for more than five years depending on the market performance. The company seeks to make expansions into other markets by establishing branches in those areas including Wangige and Westlands. This requires adequate financing because the project is to be operated in the long run. Therefore, the company aims at maximizing on profits and using the proceeds to expand its operations. The business also plans to source for short term loans from a financial institution. This is a partnership business owned and operated by four individuals. Each of the partners has equal rights in terms of ownership and decisions making. The partners are involved in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s daily decision making and decisions are reached subjected to the majority support of the partners. The company is concentrated in a single geographical
Monday, August 26, 2019
Romanticism in Literary France - Essay Example Eventually the royalist establishment would also have reason to be disturbed by romanticism's revolutionary ideological component and would suddenly represent some of it most vehement assailants. The difficulty of this position especially for the royalists is described by the author as a, "still more awkward position, fighting against a doctrine without being able to attack even its living followers who were all good royalists and whose support the party did not want to lose" (Lanyi 150). The revelation that to attack the genre effectively and coherently required an ad hominem excoriation of its practitioners as opposed to a formal stylistic criticism is indicative of the politicized aesthetic that defines this critical mode of discourse. Ã On stylistic grounds, the most cogent presentation that was provided in the article came from Francois-Benoit Hoffman, an orthodox critic, who intended to meet romanticism on its own literary terms in a review of Hugo's Nouvelles Odes (Lanyi 145 ). The main thrust of this argument is that romanticism seeks futilely to circumvent the real world, a world of naturalistic images and empirical references, and attempts to access the ideal world a world that is necessarily mediated by the natural. This epistemological confusion results in highly idealized, obscurantist and difficult prose. The failure to recognize the basic mediatory of romanticism fundamentally broken. The classicists' awareness of this issue prompts them to acknowledge.... The liberal antagonism towards romanticism was engendered for two specific reasons. Initially, it was seen as a decadent and extravagant form of literature whose aristocratic appeal was disturbing, and many of the practitioners of this new form of literature were members of the royalist faction in France and consequently the products of such an association were necessarily tainted with royalist ideology. Eventually the royalist establishment would also have reason to be disturbed by romanticism's revolutionary ideological component and would suddenly represent some of it most vehement assailants. The difficulty of this position especially for the royalists is described by the author as a, "still more awkward position, fighting against a doctrine without being able to attack even its living followers who were all good royalists and whose support the party did not want to lose" (Lanyi 150). The revelation that to attack the genre effectively and coherently required an ad hominem excori ation of its practitioners as opposed to a formal stylistic criticism is indicative of the politicized aesthetic that defines this critical mode of discourse. On stylistic grounds, the most cogent presentation that was provided in the article came from Francois-Benoit Hoffman, an orthodox critic, who intended to meet romanticism on its own literary terms in a review of Hugo's Nouvelles Odes (Lanyi 145). The main thrust of this argument is that romanticism seeks futilely to circumvent the real world, a world of naturalistic images and empirical references, and attempts to access the ideal world a world that is necessarily mediated by the natural. This epistemological confusion results in highly idealized, obscurantist and difficult prose. The failure to
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Should the authorities control what is show in TV - Essay Example They would say that the authorities were put in place by the majority of the population so this gives them the right to ban something they may deem offensive. This essay will present both sides of the argument and will debate the pros and cons of each. Those who argue against censorship of television would say that the state has no right to interfere with the lives of its citizens. The state regulates television programming based on commissions that it has set up in order to look into this issue. The state has a role to protect its citizens from harmful programming that may offend a significant amount of viewers. Where people disagree with state censorship of television is that one particular thing may be censored but not another. What are the guidelines and boundaries that are used to determine whether something is suitable or not for television? Who is in charge of deciding what to censor and what not to censor? Opponents of television censorship would say that they are educated en ough to make their own decisions about what is appropriate for them and their families. It should be the role of the state to provide as much television programming as possible and then the individual viewer can decide if something is okay or not. Basically, this comes down to first amendment rightsÃ¢â¬âa citizen has the freedom of speech to choose what he may or may not do.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Generic Strategies model in sucessful Management - Essay Example For example, due to its information technology systems, the international logistics system always stays up-to-date as well as guides the entire procurement procedure from the brands as well as finding out information about the buying habits of its customers.Also, this helps the entire supply chain as well since the companies that supply Wal-Mart the merchandise always get the information at the right time due to the IT system of Wal-Mart. This translates into Wal-Mart acquiring the right products, at the right time which leads to it being able to offer the prices it does and thus, gets the powerful and attractive image it has acquired in the world. Sears, Roebuck and Co., popularly known as Sears, is an American chain of Department stores which offers a variety of items such as clothing, jewelry, home appliances, hardware, electronics etc. Today, the largest Sears Department Store is located at the Toronto Eaton Centre in Canada. Since its inception, the stores of Sears were known for carrying quality and reliable brands which attracted the consumer in the first place. Thus, Sears has been using this differentiation strategy, of stressing on quality products and carrying big names which has made the company popular and well recognized. The stores of Sears carry very popular names like Levi, Sony, Craftsman, Kenmore etc. which are big reliable names and thus the consumers can be sure they are getting their moneyÃ¢â¬â¢s worth since they are shopping at Sears. Sears ran into trouble w few years back when the company lost control and authority in the market due to losing sight of what made the company truly successful Ã¢â¬â t he power of the brands that it carried, and it started offering Ã¢â¬Å"everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s brandsÃ¢â¬ or simply trying to phase out the fact that brands are important for consumers. This proved as a bad strategy for the firm since it was known for its reliability and its ability to
Friday, August 23, 2019
Not Your Dream Team - Assignment Example The first stage is formation where the team members will come together with the aim of fulfilling a goal. The second is the storming stage where each member is struggling for his or her ideas to be heard and therefore marked by chaos and conflicts. The third stage is the norming stage where now the members come to know each other and start accepting each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas. The next is the performing stage where the group now focuses on achieving the goal and hence no conflict at this stage. Finally, having achieved its purpose, the group adjourns. 2. Mallory joined Think Link as assistant marketing manager for new products; two software programs were being designed to help high school students learn algebra and geometry. MurrayÃ¢â¬â¢s manager is Lin Chen (marketing manager). Other members on the cross-functional development team with her are Todd Schlotsky (senior programmer); Sean Traynor (vice-president for marketing); Joyce Rothman (a former high school teacher who co-founded Think Link; she works only part-time in the company); and Harlow Gray (educational consultant). In this paragraph, the bases of power are mentioned and this will determine the decisions made in the organization. Sean for example is the Vice president and he has therefore the most authority in the company based on the positional power he is holding. The decisions Sean will make will therefore not be contested or argued with as a result of his prestigious position in the organization. Sean holds legitimate power due to his position as the vice-president, Lin and Todd and Mallory hold expert power as a result of their knowledge in their different fields. Mallory, Joyce and Harlow also hold referent power due to their ability to be consulted by others in different places. Sean also holds coercive power which is portrayed later when he fires Lin. The above team also hold reward power which they use to give bonus on software. 3. After her first week on the job, Mallory was considering qu itting. Ã¢â¬Å"These people are so opinionated and competitive,Ã¢â¬ she complained. Sean, Joyce and Harlow, in MalloryÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, donÃ¢â¬â¢t listen to anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas at team meetings; they only talk about their concerns. Ã¢â¬Å"Sean thinks his rank entitles him to make all the decisions in the team. Joyce thinks her opinions should carry more weight because she was instrumental in creating the company. And Harlow views everyone as less knowledgeable than he is and discounts their information as Ã¢â¬Å"out-of-dateÃ¢â¬ , because he consults with the Ã¢â¬Å"outsideÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â other software firms and school districts. Lin, who is supposed to have the leadership role in this team, is passive and quiet. While he sends out agendas, and organizes meetings, people ignore him at the meeting; when he is speaking, people interrupt him or talk over him. He appears to avoid all the conflict and lack of progress by rushing off to another meeting. The team didnÃ¢â¬â¢t a ccomplish any agenda items at the first meeting I was at.Ã¢â¬ When a group is forming, it undergoes several stages and the hardest and most challenging one is the storming stage where every member wants his or her opinion to be taken into consideration. This is exactly the stage this group is in where the members are not willing to listen to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢
Thursday, August 22, 2019
A Child Called It Encourage Speech Essay Hello guys IÃ¢â¬â¢m Grace and I am a volunteer of this youth center, below I just to ask do you have these feelings before? Desperate, depressed, desolated. I believe these emotions will bump out in every one of your mind when you think you are in a disadvantaged situation, and sometimes you think the whole world owes you, arenÃ¢â¬â¢t you? But indeed, are you really that pathetic? For me, people used to say IÃ¢â¬â¢m a pessimism. Yet, after reading a book based on a true story of a boy, it blows my mind. And it changes my mind in way in seeing the world with cherishing and forgiveness, and now I want to share this with all of you and I hope it will change yours too. The boy who gives me such an impact is called Dave Pelzer and he is the author of the book called Ã¢â¬ËA child called ITÃ¢â¬â¢. He was being abused by his mom since he was a child, starving, pain, hopeless are what he gone through, but in the end, he was being rescued. The state of California said that it may have been the worse case of child abuse in the history of state. I guess you could imagine how tough the life was for Dave. However, despite of all these memories, he still managed to survive and become a bright person. So first of all, the precious of survival is the first thing Dave had taught me. In our daily lives, our often take everything for granted, just take a simple example. When we are eating our cereal breakfast, we would complain from our mom and say Ã¢â¬Ë How come itÃ¢â¬â¢s the same taste again! I have ate this cereal for whole week! IÃ¢â¬â¢m bored of it! while you are complaining with things you are not satisfied, Dave was managing not to starve to die. From the book, his mother rarely treated Dave as a son nor a human being, he is just an Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢, a non-existence. Eating is not a normal right for Dave, he had to finished all his chores in order to have a mouth of food, finding food from the trash and stealing food from a grocery store and classmates was the way to keep him alive. Just think about it? We are really l ucky arenÃ¢â¬â¢t we? As all us sitting in here and no need to worry about tomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s live and will we survive or not. And itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to back to basics, donÃ¢â¬â¢t focus on things we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have but the things we have! We have friends, families and everyone sitting next to you in this youth center, what we got is far more than survive, and we should better treasure it, and not focus on the dark side. As I about the dark side, you might think DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s heart was full of hatred to his mum because her mum treated him so badly. But in contrast, Dave teach me forgivenessÃ¢â¬âthe art of letting go. No matter what lies in their past, they can overcome the dark side and press on to a brighter world and turn tragedy into triumphÃ¢â¬â¢ Dave said in the book. How come a person can let go of his anger and bring love to her mum and his loving child, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s Dave. Look at what happened to us, sometimes people or ourselves makes mistakes and the hatred will last in our heart, but actu ally whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the point in remembering all those tragedy? Why donÃ¢â¬â¢t we move on? Just forgive ourselves and forgive others, your friends, your family. Then, you will find you heart is brighter and clearer than ever, just like Dave. In conclusion, I think this book is remarkable and incredible as DaveÃ¢â¬â¢s experience do change my way in looking in the world in more perspective such as survive, forgiveness, love, courage and faith, but the time is limited so I have to stop here. Lastly, I just want to say we could always let go of the bad things happened to us and treasure everything we got, be positive! Everyone in the youth center would support you. Even the darkest will end and sun will rise. Thank you.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Pursuit of Happiness Essay (The Misconception Between Success and Happiness: UNCOVERED!) From a very young age, we are taught that achieving specific milestones of success Ã¢â¬â getting good grades or even best if we can, getting into a famous university, having a prestigious career or title, having a certain amount of money saved in the bank, living in the perfect dream house, marrying the right person according to our personal perspective, and having talented or well-behaved kids later on will make us happy. The frustrating truth is that none of these things have anything to do with happiness, not even one. Right from the beginning, we have been confused that achieving these goals will bring us forth to the doorway of happiness. It has been inducted into our minds that the attainment of these milestones is the pursuit of happiness, but at the end of the line, we only got success Ã¢â¬â not happiness. For those who are contented to being just successful, let me ask you, Ã¢â¬Å"What happens when you reach the goal that you have been setting for?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Do you feel really happy, elated, and ecstatic?Ã¢â¬ . . . Ã¢â¬Å"If yes, then for how long?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long do or could you maintain that heightened and elevated feeling of euphoria after you reach your goal?Ã¢â¬ . . . For most of us, the answer would probably be Ã¢â¬Å"very long,Ã¢â¬ but without the biases and cover-ups, the answer is really Ã¢â¬Å"not that much long.Ã¢â¬ Let us just say Ã¢â¬â a day, a week, or even a month or more. Then, Ã¢â¬Å"What happens when those feelings fade?Ã¢â¬ It would just appear that you are not that much pleased to have reached your goal, but not because the goal loses some of its meaning. It is just that we consider the part of achieving to being our happiness. And once the moment of achievement passes, we would be looking for the next goal, the next achievement, and the next pursuit of success Ã¢â¬â not happiness. In other words, we seldom spend time basking in the satisfaction of what we have achieved or what we already have before achieving anything. We tend to set another goal, and then the next, and the next. Sometimes it may feel that you will just become happy Ã¢â¬Å"when. . .Ã¢â¬ And when that condition is met, you will later find out that you are not really happy at all, at least not for that much long. Then you start looking for the next goal to pursue. This is a description of the pursuit of success Ã¢â¬â a false definition of happiness that depends on a never-ending string ofÃ achievements. We can even pursue achievements that have little long-term meaning or even those that endures for a lifetime Ã¢â¬â a degree or title, but these secular goals will still not bring us to profound happiness. For those who are already having second-thoughts about being contended to being just successful, you might ask me, Ã¢â¬Å"So, what is happiness anyway?Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"What is my definition of happiness?Ã¢â¬ . . . For me, Ã¢â¬Å"It is not really that sense of euphoria; it is not pleasure, but something larger, deeper, emphatic, yet fundamental.Ã¢â¬ In other words, happiness is less an event and more an ongoing state of mind, and a way of focusing on the larger picture Ã¢â¬â the journey, the quality, and the essence of experiences. It is often about defining your values and purpose, and staying true to them. To increase your level of happiness, you do not need more Ã¢â¬Å"happy moments,Ã¢â¬ rather, you need a more positive outlook on all moments Ã¢â¬â a sense that t hey are part of the tapestry of a life well-lived, that they are consistent with your nature, that they are mirrors of who you really are. The greater truth is that success does not create happiness, but happiness can create success. Think about people who seem to attract success Ã¢â¬â not the ruthless competitors, but the ones you just naturally want to be around. Those people who seem to bring others up, those who find an opportunity in any circumstance, and those who are contented or even passionate about pursuing a personal goal. Given the choice between pursuing achievements to become happy and finding inner happiness and letting success come to you, which do you think is more successful? There are, of course many ways to have both achievements and happiness. The mistake is in assuming that success or achievement alone will bring you happiness. When achievements are connected to your core values, then happiness is built into your achievements Ã¢â¬â for achievements alone for their own sake seldom lead to happiness and often feels like an addiction for over-achievers who keep looking for that next goal in the hopes that it will be soul-satisfying and lead to ever-lasting happiness. Actually, the secret to happiness is not at all related to setting goals and achieving them. Happiness is a state of mind that allows you to be contented and appreciate each moment for what it brings, and to increase it by honoring your personal core values and purpose. The good news is that you can create happiness in almost any circumstance, even with the very basic and most natural situation. There is no really a need for us to set our goals toÃ things so far, all we have to do is appreciate the things we already have. Being satisfied for what we have may not bring our hearts to Heaven, but being contented to what God has bestowed upon us will certainly bring Heaven into our hearts. Ã¢â¬Å"Success is getting what you want; Happiness is wanting what you get.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Ingrid Bergman
Strategies for Pricing, Promotion and Marketing Analysis Product Cost Literature Review We all are exposed to marketing in one or the other form everyday. Every time we buy or use a product, go window shopping, watch an advertisement, find a new product or someone telling about it. Marketing outputs are very familiar and are not as narrow as people generally know. Marketing is not just advertising, selling or making people buy things they want or they donÃ¢â¬â¢t. Marketing infact covers a wide range of absolutely essential business activities that bring us the products we want them, when we want them, where we want them, with all information. (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006) Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing is the management process that is responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitablyÃ¢â¬ . (CIM, 2001) Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchange and satisfy individual and organisational objectivesÃ¢â¬ . (AMA, 1985) A definition that includes the important elements of both the AMA and CIM definitions, but still embraces the evolving relationship orientation is offered by Gronroos (1997). Ã¢â¬Å"Marketing is to establish, maintain and enhance relationship with customers and other partners at a profit, so that the objectives of the partners, at a profit, so that the objectives of the parties involved are met. This is achieved by mutual exchange and fulfilment of promisesÃ¢â¬ . (Gronroos C, 1997) Marketing management is the act and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering and communicating superior customer value. (Kottler.P , Keller.K 2006) Marketing is a management process. Marketing involves management skills, requires planning, analysis, resource allocation, control and investment in terms of money, skilled people and physical resources. It also requires implementation monitoring and evaluation. Marketing fulfills customer requirement profitably Marketer has to work within the resource capabilities of the organisation and specifically work within the agreed budgets and performance targets set for the marketing function. Marketing identifies and anticipates customer requirements. Marketer creates some sort of offering only after researching the market and pinpointing exactly what the customer want. Marketing is about giving customers what they want It implies a focus towards the customer or end consumer of the product or service. (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006) Marketing offers and exchanges ideas, goods and services. The idea of marketing is an exchange process, organisation offers a product or service and the customer offers a sum of money in return. (Brassington F and Pettit S, 2006) Marketing deals with identifying and meeting human and social needs, one of the shortest definitions is Ã¢â¬Å"meeting needs profitablyÃ¢â¬ . (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006) Marketing management tasks Capturing marketing insights Developing marketing strategies Connecting with customers Shaping the market offerings Delivering value Communicating value Creating long term growth (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006) The marketing mix is one of the dominant ideas in modern marketing. Marketing mix consists of everything the firm can do to influence the demand for its product. The many possibilities gather into 4 PÃ¢â¬â¢s. They are Product, Price, Place and Promotion. Ã¢â¬Å"The set of controllable tactical marketing toolsÃ¢â¬â product, price, place and promotion- that blends to produce the response it wants in the target market. Marketing Mix Variety Advertising List price Channels Quality Promotions Discounts Coverage Design Personal selling Allowances Assortments Features Publicity Payment period Locations Brand name Direct selling Credit terms Inventory Packaging Transport Services Warranties Target Market (Kotler et al, 2001, p98) THE 4 Ps of Marketing The four strategies of the marketing mix (product, price, promotion and place) are interconnected. The marketing mix is one of the dominant ideas in modern marketing. Action in one affects decisions in another. It is the set of controllable tactical marketing tools that blends to give or meet the market needs. Target population must be first selected and then the strategies are applied towards. Marketing mix consists of everything that can influence the demand of the product. PRODUCT- Product can be a tangible object or a service offered by a company to the target market. A product can be any physical object, services, person, places, organisation and ideas that are offered to a market for acquisition, attention, consumption or use that satisfies the customer needs or wants. There are different product levels depending on the customer value hierarchy, they are; core benefit, basic product, expected product, augmented product, potential product. PRICE Ã¢â¬â Price is the amount of money charged for a product or service rendered, it is also the sum of value that consumers exchange for the benefits of having, using satisfying their needs or wants of the product or service. PROMOTION Ã¢â¬â Promotion are the activities that communicate the merits of the product or service that persuade the target customer to buy them. Special promotion offers like cash discount, rebates, offers etc. PLACE Ã¢â¬â Place is all the activities that a companies carries to make the product reach and available to the market. Place is also the distribution channel and distribution of the product or service in the most advantageous and best way possible to the target customer. (Kotler et al, 2001, p98), (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006), (Lancaster G and Massingham L, 1993, p100) Promotion The communication of merits of the product and persuading the customer to purchase is promotion. The benefits of the product have to be communicated to the customers for earning profits and gaining sales. The process of communicating with various form or promotion mix is known as promotion. (Kotler et al, 2001, p98) Promotion mix Promotion mix is the blend of promotional tools, which are, advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, sales force, direct marketing and public relations. These promotional tools are used to communicate or spread awareness to the customers. These tools have different characteristics and costs. Total marketing communications programme carried by a company or a business is called the promotional mix. (Kotler et al, 2001), (Michael J. Barker, 2003) Advertising Any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas or products through the medium or channel like television, newspapers, magazines, hoardings, posters, radio, cinema etc by an identified sponsor. Advertising include not only business firms, but also museums, charitable organisations, and Government agencies that direct messages to target publics. Advertisements are cost-effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build brand preference or to educate people. (Kotler. P, p590, 2005) The intention of advertisement is to inform and to persuade. The two basic aspects of advertising are the message that has to be communicated and how to be communicated. (Keith Crosier, 1998a) Personal Selling Personal selling is one of the effective tools of promotion mix involving an interactive relationship between the seller and the buyer. It is more effective in building up buyer preference, conviction and action. (Philip Kotler, 2005, p580 ; Kotler P and Keller K, 2006, p556) Sales Promotion Sales promotion is used for short run effects to promote product offers and to push sagging sales. Through sales promotion, companies get better, stronger and quicker response from the customers. Ex- contests, coupons, premiums, offers-buy one get one etc.(Philip Kotler, 2005, p580) Public relation or Publicity It is to build good relationship between the public and the company by favourable publicity, thereby building image. Lower in cost compared to advertising. It is most of the times the communication of a product, brand or business by placing information about it in the media without paying for the time or media directly. (Kotler et al, 2001, p690) Direct marketing Direct marketing is an interactive system of marketing that uses one or more advertising media to effect a measurable response or transaction at any location. Direct connections with carefully targeted individual consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships by using telephone, mail, e-mail, internet, fax etc. to communicate directly with specific consumer alternative. (Bennett P D, 1995), (Betts et al., CIM, 1998) (Terance A. Shimp, 1997, p386) Promotion mix Advertising Builds awareness, public presentation (impersonal) Repetition of brand awareness and product helps in positioning and build customer trust Personal Selling Immediate and interactive lots of communication between the buyer and seller, sales call are costly. Communicating complex and deeper product information and features. Relationships can be built up important if closing the sale make take a long time. Sales Promotion Can stimulate sales by targeting promotional incentives on particular products Effective short term promotional tool. Public Relations News, stories and features are more authentic and credible. Cheap way of reaching many customers if the publicity is achieved through the right media but lose control. Direct Marketing Direct interaction with targeted individual consumers. Communication can be personalised and activities less visible to competitors. (David Jobber, 2001),( William G. Zikmund and Michael dÃ¢â¬â¢Amico, 1998), Kotler P and Keller K, 2006, p555-6) Advertising Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising is any paid form of non personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsorÃ¢â¬ .(AMA, 1963) Ã¢â¬Å"Advertising is the non-personal communication of marketing related information to a target audience, usually paid for by the advertiser, and delivered through the mass media in order to reach the specific objectives of the sponsorÃ¢â¬ (Burnett, 1993) Advertising: Its role and structure Developments in magazines, radio and television have had a tremendous impact of advertising. Apart from marketing, advertising may also serve several other functions in the economy and in the society. (Bovee C. L and Arens W. L, 1992) A hierarchy of effects model proposes that ads can move consumers closer to buying step by step, from being unaware, to knowledge, to liking, to preference, to desire, to purchase. The basic functions of advertising are- Precipitation- Create awareness and stimulate needs and wants. Persuasion- Encourage action and commitment Reinforcement- Support customerÃ¢â¬â¢s past decisions Reminder- Create habit Advertisings have the ability to add value to the brand as they are capable of endowing a brand with a symbolic meaning that makes more value in the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s eye. (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006, p556) Advertising performs the communication function of a company, which the company has faith on. The main function of advertising are informing, persuading, reminding, adding value and assisting other company efforts. Informing: Advertising makes consumer aware of brands, new brand, educates about the features and benefits, builds brand image or forming o it by reaching the mass audience at a low cost per head. It also increases demand for existing product, teaches new uses of product and awareness. Persuading: Advertisements persuades or try to push the consumers and customers to try the advertised products and services. At chances there is also demand created for the secondary product of the brand. Reminding: Advertisements make the brand memorable by recalling them, they also remind customers of their purchases, influences the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s interest in mature brand bears influence on brand switchers by letting them know about the other. Assisting other company efforts: Advertisement assists other company efforts by carrying the information or spreading the awareness of sales promotion to consumers(coupons, offers). It also helps the consumers in recognising the product or brand by showing the packaging and design on television, hoardings and magazines. (Shimp T. A., 2000) Advantages of advertisements Advertising provides an introduction to the company and its products Advertising explains the products new features Advertisements are more economical Advertisements offering brochures generate leads to sales people Advertisements tell people how to use the products and make them aware of their right purchase. (Kotler P and Keller K, 2006, p556) Advertisings have the capability to compliment the other promotional mix elements, like- Delivering sales promotions directly and supporting them indirectly, carrying public relations messages and announcing public relations activities, it also presells the salespersonÃ¢â¬â¢s product. Thereby advertising increases sales and profitability. (Burnett, 1993) The economic impact of advertising can be linked to the opening shot in billiards, a chain reaction that affects the company that advertises as well as its competitors, customers and the business community. On the otherside or broaderscale, advertising is often considered the trigger on mass distribution system that enables the manufacturers to produce the products in high volume, at low prices, standardised quality. Advertising adds value to products, makes products more or less expensive, affects total consumer demand, encourages or discourages competition, narrows or widens consumer choice and affects national business cycles. Advertising influences in an economy that produces more goods and services that can be consumed. (Bovee C. L and Arens W. L, 1992). Advertising is expensive and its effects are uncertain, moreover sometimes it takes time to impact on consumer behaviour. Functions and effects of advertisements as a marketing tool To stimulate the distribution of a product To lower the overall cost of sales To build brand preference and loyalty To identify products and differentiate them from others To communicate information about product, its features and its location of sale To induce consumers to try new products and to suggest reuse. (Bovee C. L and Arens W. L, 1992) The magnitude of advertising Advertising is a big business. USAÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditure on advertisements alone total to 200 million dollars as of 1998. Some American companies invest more than 1 billion dollar a year on domestic product. (Coen R. J, 1997) Advertising is investment in brand equity bank BrandÃ¢â¬â¢s equity is enhanced by marketing communications that create brand awareness thereby leading to strong, favourable and unique relation in the consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s memory between brand, feature and its benefits. (Aaker D. A., 1993). A brand is differentiated from competitive offering from price competition. (Boulding W, 1994) Advertising affects on building brands Advertising helps to build brands by communicating value and adding personality. It is only advertising that can do this task well. Advertising is essential to build consumer perception of brand values in market. (Randall, 1994, p 16) Advertising cannot be evaluated separately and it is an extricable part of total brand. The sales of brand are associated with the advertising expenditure as they are directly proportional. Advertising takes the sales up and down with the increase and decrease with proportion to the communication spread to the consumers of the market. Mraket have instinctive and correct feeling that the brand is the most valued property that evaporates unless supported properly by investment in advertising. (Arnold, D 1993) Brand A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol or design or combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors. -American Marketing Association Ultimately, a brand is something that resides in the mind of customer. Ã¢â¬Å"A brand is every sign that is capable of distinguishing the goods or services of a company.Ã¢â¬ In this definition, the stress is on Ã¢â¬ËsignÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdistinguishingÃ¢â¬â¢. A sign may be a word, picture or form mark. The brand name is that part of the brand that can be pronounced. A brand name can serve as a characteristic in the recognition of the branded article.(Riezebos.R et al, p-33,63,85, 2003) Brands are fundamentally important to the survival and success of many firms for which companies have to manage them correctly. Strong brands are powerful and profitable yet there are many challenges and threats continuing strength and their existence. Branding is a fundamental strategic process that involves all parts of the firm in its delivery. Brand must always deliver value which must be defined in consumer terms. Brand has a continuing relationship with its buyers and users, this may change overtime but the company should always work on it to maintain it. Branding must be continuously adapted so that it is both efficient and effective due to the threat of growing competition. (Randall G, 2000, p1-5) The connection of Zippo lighters, Swatch watches or Mont blanc pens. With all the views it feels that a brand is something different from a product. When Virgin first started, it sold music as a product. Later the Virgin brand was built up and now is in various fields like airlines, cola, railways and financial services. It is now definitely a brand. A brand has an existence that is more than an actual product or service, it has a life of its own that feeds on the original product but also carries its original values and identify into new product areas. Ã¢â¬Å"A product is something that is made in factory and brand is something that is bought by a consumerÃ¢â¬ (Randall G, 2000, p1-5) It is every human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s nature to invent and build brand values in each individual head. We do it with people, we do it with animals and we do it with inanimate objects. The skill of brand management is to see that each consumer is offered the right raw materials from which he or she will build the brand as the brand owner would prefer.(Randall G, 2000, p1-5) A brand is not an objective fact, it is made up of a million or more individual and subjective assessments. (Bullmore, 1999) Hankinson and Cowking (1993) have described brand definition under six headings; Visual Perceptual Positioning Added value Image Personality (Hankinson, G and Cowking, P,1993) Brand Image and Brand Identity Brand image- Brand image is what exists in the minds of consumers and the entire information of the brand they have received by word of mouth, advertising, packaging, experience, service etc. modified by perception, previous beliefs, social norms and forgetting. Brand image is what exists. Brand identity- Brand identity is what is under control and what is transmitted to the market. A strong brand is one that has a consistent, coherent identity. (Randall G, 2000, p1-5). Brand identity consists of twelve dimensions organised around four perspectives- the brand as product(scope, attributes, quality or value, uses, users, country of origin), brand as organisation (organisational attributes, local versus global), brand as person (brand personality, customer relationships), and brand as symbol (visual imagery and heritage). (Randall G, 2000, p68) As per Randall, (1993) brands perform five man functions for consumers. Identity- Brand must identify itself clearly and unambiguously, so name, legal protection and design elements are important. Shorthand summary- The identity should act as a summary of all the information the consumer holds about the brand. Security- Brand should guarantee to provide the benefits expected. Differentiation- The brand must clearly differentiate itself from its competitors and shows its uniqueness. Added value- Brand must offer more than the generic product. (Randall, G, 1993) One more view of brand is to excel in their offering product like price such as Asda, functional benefit such as Toyota or psychological benefit such as Timotei. (Davidson, H, 1997) When General Motors (GM) and Toyota both marketed a car produced by them in joint venture and cars were functionally identical but were branded as Toyota and Geo Prizm. In the course of 1990-94, Toyota were able to sell 200,000 Corollas at US $ 11,000 each and GM were able to sell only 80,000 and that to with a lower price of US $ 10,700. This shows the greater power of the Toyota brand over the other. This shows the perception of quality in consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mind with respect to brand. (Almquist et al, 1998) Brands in Takeovers Nestle made a takeover bid for Rowntree at a premium due to the brand equity or value by Rowntree. The premium was not paid for the present performance of the brand but for their future potential. Nestle made kitkat the truly European brand. Brand Equity Brand equity is a set of liabilities and assets which are attached to a brand, its value, name, symbol of a company to that of the customers. They are grouped under five categories. Brand loyalty Name awareness Perceived quality Brand association in addition to perceived quality Other proprietary brand assets-patents, trademarks, channel relationships etc. (Aaker D A, 1991, p8) Celebrity Endorsements (Brand Ambassadors) Celebrities are individuals who enjoy public acknowledgment by a large share of a certain group of people. Their attributes like attractiveness, skills, extraordinary lifestyle are observed, They also differ from the social norm and take pleasure in a high degree of public awareness. Few classic examples of celebrities like, Meg Ryan, Pierce Brosnan, models like Naomi Campbell, Gisele Buendchen, sports persons like Anna Kournikova, Michael Schumacher entertainers like Oprah Winfrey, Conan OÃ¢â¬â¢Brien, and pop stars e.g. Madonna, David Bowie, Britney Spears and Rihanna and also business class or groups like Donald Trump, Bill Gates or politicians like Bill Clinton, Tony Blair. Appearances of celebrities are in different ways. Initially, when they appear in their actual profession (Tennis players in Wimbledon) like Anna Kournikova Pete Sampras. Later, their appearance in public by attending special celebrity events like world premieres of movies and academy awards, in news, magazine s provide information on events and the personal life of celebrities through mass-media. Celebrities act as spokespeople in advertising to promote products, services and ideas. (Kambitsis et al. 2002, Tom et al. 1992). Celebrities like Britney Spears, Michael Jackson, Liz Hurley and Tiger Woods are paid billions of dollars for every contract with the company or brand as they play a major role in advertising industry. (Daneshvary, Rennae and Schwer, 2000, Kambitsis et al. 2002). For example, Famous Tennis player Venus Williams has been endorsed by the sportswear manufacturer Reebok International Inc. for $40 million and five year contract. Advertising with the use of celebrities create enormous publicity and attention of people. (Ohanian 1991) Celebrities as Spokespersons Spokespersons are generally used by companies to deliver their advertising message and convince consumers of their products or brands. Spokesperson who are popular and are widely known are endorsed by companies, thereby celebrity endorser (Tom et al. 1992). Ã¢â¬Å"A celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the people for their achievements in their fields other than the product class endorsed.Ã¢â¬ (Friedman and Friedman, 1979, p63). Actress Catherine Zeta-Jones endorses the perfume manufactured by Elizabeth Arden (cosmetic manufacturer). Celebrities are endorsed due to their high influential potential capability and their higher recall and degree of attention in advertising. Advertising with celebrities create positive feelings towards brands, more entertaining and increases companyÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness, Advertising with celebrities are likely affect consumers brand attitudes and purchase behaviour. (Solomon 2002) Source Credibility and Attractiveness The main intention of advertising is to persuade customers, attempt to modify or change consumerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards brands (Solomon 2002). Celebrity endorsement strategy by advertisers enables to project an image in terms of persuasiveness, objectiveness, expertise, and trustworthiness. (Till and Shimp 1998). Source attractiveness- It is the endorserÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality, physical appearance, likeability, and similarity to the consumer perception, thereby to the perceived social value (Solomon 2002). Using celebrities or attractive people in television and print advertising is common practice followed and have proved to be more successful in influencing customerÃ¢â¬â¢s attitudes and beliefs. (Ohanian 1991) The Match-up Hypothesis Many research studies have showed the relativity between brand and celebrity endorsers and explained the effectiveness of using them to promote brands. Many of the celebrity endorsements proved to be successful. (Walker et al. 1992). Celebrity Endorser Company/Product Success (Yes/No) Liz Hurley Estee Lauder Yes Cindy Crawford Revlon PepsiCo Yes Yes Bruce Willis Seagrams No Michael Jordan Nike WorldCom Yes No Whitney Houston ATT No Jerry Seinfeld American Express Yes Milla Jovovich LÃ¢â¬â¢Oreal Yes (Successful and unsuccessful celebrity endorsements Source, Walker et al. 1992, Till 1998) It is not enough for a person to be just famous to endorse (Solomon 2002). Super stars like Bruce Willis and Whitney Houston who were attractive failed in their endorsements. Celebrity spokespersons should be knowledgeable, experienced, and qualified to talk about the product to be effective on consumer. (Tom et al. 1992, Daneshvary and Schwer 2000) References Philip Kotler, (2005), Marketing Management, 11th edition, Pearson Education, India AMA, (1985), Ã¢â¬ËAMA Board approves new marketing definitionÃ¢â¬â¢ Marketing news, 1st March, p1. Brassington F and Pettit S, (2006), Ã¢â¬ËPrinciples of marketingÃ¢â¬â¢ 4th edition, Pearson education, England. Gronroos, C, (1997), Ã¢â¬ËFrom marketing mix to relationship marketing- Towards a paradigm shift in marketing management decision 35(4), pp322-39. Kotler P and Keller L K, (2006), Marketing management, 12th edition, Prentice Hall, USA. Kotler P, Armstrong G, Saunders J and Wong V, (2001), Principles of marketing, 3rd European edition, Prentice Hall, UK Peter D. Bennett, (1995), Dictionary of marketing terms, American Marketing Association, Chicago. Keith Crosier, (1998a), Advertising, in kitchen, P.J.(ed.) Marketing Communication: Principles and practice, International Thompson Business Press, London. Michael J. Barker, (2003), The marketing book, 5th edition, Heinemann publication, Great Britain. Betts et al., CIM, (1998), Promotional Practice, 5th edition, BPP publishing, London. William G. Zikmund and Michael dÃ¢â¬â¢Amico, (1998), Effective marketing-Creating and keeping customers, International Thompson Publishing, USA. Terance A. Shimp, (1997), Aspects of integrated marketing communication, The Dryden press, USA. Lancaster G and Massingham L, (1993), Marketing management, McGraw Hill Company, Great Britain David Jobber, (2001), Principles and practice of marketing, McGraw Hill publishing company, UK. CIM, (2001), Marketing management, BPP publishing, London.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Parents act as the first teachers in a child's life. Both mothers and fathers can have very unique influences on their children. Mothers and fathers parent differently, however, both maternal and paternal figures are essential in healthy development. Together both parents teach their children many things including how to eat, walk, talk and underlying emotions such as love, trust and happiness. Oppositely parents may also teach their kids, often unknowing of the effects they are causing, distrust, anger, and contempt. Every parent parents differently using various methods, styles, and techniques. Though traditional nucleic family rolls are dying or reversing, maternal influences still tend to be more prominent than paternal influences during the early stages of development. To a young child mothers tend to be more nurturing, providing food and dry diapers more often than their male counterparts. Where as the father would be more likely to interact in a playing manner, perhaps rolling a ball around or reading a story. Both aspects are extremely important in early development. One of the most influential aspects of a child's development comes in form of Attachment. In essence Attachment is the close bond that a baby feels with it's primary caregiver. This bond lays the foundation for all future relationships. This bond could literally make or break a young child's basic ability to socialize. For example, say the primary caregiver to which a child attached was their mother and at two years of age she ran off leaving the father alone to raise the child. This could cause the child to become withdrawn, even from the father and certainly to any new people brought in to take her place, such as a nanny or day care worker. Later on th... ... strong family structure, keep the lines of communication open, never be afraid to punish them if necessary as you see fit, and do what works for you and your child, because every family is different, what works for one is not guaranteed to work for another. Works Cited 1. Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2012). Psychology: modules for active learning (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. 2. Farnsworth, D. L. (1966). Psychiatry, education, and the young adult,. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas. 3. McGraw, P. C. (2004). Family first: your step-by-step plan for creating a phenomenal family. New York: Free Press. 4. N/A, N. (Director). (2005). Discipline: Teaching Limits With Love [Documentary]. U.S.A: Parents Action For Children. 5. Sells, S. P. (1998). Treating the tough adolescent: a family-based, step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford Press.
Monday, August 19, 2019
For the past decades, a vast amount of immigrants have made their way into our nation. For work, reuniting with family, fleeing from poverty, and various other reasons many immigrants have added to our already massive and diverse population. Along with picking up and moving their life to the United States, many of these immigrants that have fled to our nation have brought along their families. More specifically though is the many immigrant children that have been brought to America. By the time the new millennium reached in the year 2000, Ã¢â¬Å"over 3 million students in the U.S. schools were counted as Ã¢â¬Ëlimited English proficientÃ¢â¬â¢, a number that is almost double what it was just 10 years beforeÃ¢â¬ (Olsen 2). With our nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ schools increasing in English language learners it has now reached a point where these students are not always the minority. Because of this it puts more attention on theses students and it has been said by many specialists that not enough attention has been paid to including these English language learners appropriately since their arrival. However, the most challenging task for teachers has been to take these English language learners and make them fluent in English. In order for our nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ teachers to meet the needs of the many English language learners, teachers today must incorporate strategies to successfully teach writing and literacy. One can only imagine how it would feel to come to a new country and not know the native language, but for English language learners this is a challenge they face everyday. As immigrants, these students lack knowledge of the English language and as they are put in the U.S. school system they face the challenge of not only learning English but also learning other sub... ...ively teach ELLs to be successful in writing and literacy, and more importantly to become successful and happy students. Works Cited Beckett, E. Carol and Perry Kay Haley. Ã¢â¬Å"Using Standards to Integrate Academic Language into ESL Fluency.Ã¢â¬ The Clearing House. 74. 2 (2000): 102-104 Brice, Alejandro and Celeste Roseberry-Mckibbin. Turning frustration into success for English Language Learners. Educational Leadership, 56.7 (1999): 53-55. Jong, Ester and Candace A. Harper. Ã¢â¬Å"Preparing Mainstream Teachers for English- Language Learners: Is being a Good Teacher Good EnoughÃ¢â¬ . Teacher Education Quarterly (2006) Myer, Lois. Ã¢â¬Å"Barriers to Meaningful Instruction for English Learners.Ã¢â¬ Theory into Practice. 39.4 (2000): 228-36. Olsen, Laurie. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning English and Learning America: Immigrants in the Center of A Storm.Ã¢â¬ Theory into Practice. 39.4 (2000): 196-202
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Federalist Policies After the establishment of the constitution, the Federalist administrations faces many significant challenges when dealing with the economics of the United States; much of the country was divided over issues such as how to raise money, establishing a public credit system, how to pay the national debt, and whether or not a national bank should be established. Leaders like Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison came to represent the ideas of the people and as these ideas became more solid, debate and opposition rose. The Federalists saw multiple ways to resolve these issues, and the resolutions established that leadership in the United States would be successful. Raising revenue for the United States was the first economic issue the Federalists faced. This was the first and most important need they saw for the country. At first, James Madison proposed a small tax on imports, however, the high demand for money quickly increased the taxation. Also, the Tonnage Act of 1789 was passed, taxing American and foreign ships. American ships were not taxed as much as foreign ships, however. The issues of taxation and raising money also brought into play bigger issues, such as whether the United States should favor Britain or France in their economic policies, whether they should maintain taxation even at the expense of farmers, and whether the interests of northern manufacturers should be their biggest concern. The Tonnage Act was the beginning of increased revenue in the America, but a sound fiscal discipline was far from having been created. Another issue that was controversial was the establishment of a public credit system and paying the national debt. Alexander Hamilton was the main activist in this issue. He wrote several reports to the House of Representatives offering solutions to the problem. In his first report, he suggested that citizens who had government bonds should be able to turn them in for new, interest-bearing bond. He also thought that the government should make the states pay their debt to the government, which would be about $21 million. The problem with his ideas was that, in financial crisis, many farmers had sold their bonds at very low prices to speculators, and that with this plan, only the speculators would benefit, because they could trade in all of the bonds they bought very cheaply. The citizens argued that the they should be they should be paid back for their losses. Federalist Policies :: American America History Federalist Policies After the establishment of the constitution, the Federalist administrations faces many significant challenges when dealing with the economics of the United States; much of the country was divided over issues such as how to raise money, establishing a public credit system, how to pay the national debt, and whether or not a national bank should be established. Leaders like Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison came to represent the ideas of the people and as these ideas became more solid, debate and opposition rose. The Federalists saw multiple ways to resolve these issues, and the resolutions established that leadership in the United States would be successful. Raising revenue for the United States was the first economic issue the Federalists faced. This was the first and most important need they saw for the country. At first, James Madison proposed a small tax on imports, however, the high demand for money quickly increased the taxation. Also, the Tonnage Act of 1789 was passed, taxing American and foreign ships. American ships were not taxed as much as foreign ships, however. The issues of taxation and raising money also brought into play bigger issues, such as whether the United States should favor Britain or France in their economic policies, whether they should maintain taxation even at the expense of farmers, and whether the interests of northern manufacturers should be their biggest concern. The Tonnage Act was the beginning of increased revenue in the America, but a sound fiscal discipline was far from having been created. Another issue that was controversial was the establishment of a public credit system and paying the national debt. Alexander Hamilton was the main activist in this issue. He wrote several reports to the House of Representatives offering solutions to the problem. In his first report, he suggested that citizens who had government bonds should be able to turn them in for new, interest-bearing bond. He also thought that the government should make the states pay their debt to the government, which would be about $21 million. The problem with his ideas was that, in financial crisis, many farmers had sold their bonds at very low prices to speculators, and that with this plan, only the speculators would benefit, because they could trade in all of the bonds they bought very cheaply. The citizens argued that the they should be they should be paid back for their losses.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
With a vast array of educational sources available online or by using technology which is involved with multimedia, it is only inevitable that a great deal of teaching will be used this way. Advantages may include improved efficiency, interested learning and a sense of enjoyment for younger learners. Traditional classroom based teaching will need to work together with the advances of computer based learning to fulfil and expand the learners knowledge. Bibliography www. computerweekly. com www. mit. com www. nhs. com www. bbc. co. uk. As technology has evolved rapidly in and around our environment, public services are now steadily introducing multimedia and other forms of computer based applications. The Territorial Army (TA) and the National Health Service (NHS) are two that have evolved dramatically within the last ten years in relation to technology. The TA has several high-tech intelligence and weaponry applications and the NHS has such vital modern equipment all implementing some form of multimedia. With this it should only make sense that multimedia be included in another very important sector, Education. Within the last five years multimedia and education have bonded well to produce some very informative information. This has become readily available for children as young as two up to adults participating in education via adult learning schemes. The most significant and straightforward way to view these types of information is from the World Wide Web (WWW). The similarity between primary and university study is that they need to be online indefinitely. Although they need internet access it must not be a limited package. The connection they apply must be quick and effective otherwise users will establish a lackadaisical attitude towards the idea. Inside the last twelve months there has been a surge in primary and secondary schools in particular enquiring about wireless connections. Many schools are looking at this form of connection due to its low cost and flexibility. Laptops can be transferred from one classroom to another, rather than having a fixed station. An example of multimedia used within education is a project aimed towards disaffected children to encourage them back into learning. Interactive mathematics, composing digital music and building virtual 3D art exhibitions are some of the applications which are used and created. The main idea behind the project is to establish a stable bond between pupil and teacher with the use of I. T. Other outcomes which are hopefully achieved is the better retention of the technology they are using (both pupil and teacher). If the time for this technology is used wisely and productively with the school environment it could play and integral part in the pupils advances post education, however if the pupil is not receptive to new forms of teaching then the answer must lie elsewhere. Ian Peacock chairman of Hackney CouncilÃ¢â¬â¢s Education Committee said Ã¢â¬Å"We need to ensure that the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s use of computers in the classroom provides some of the buzz they get from playing media-intensive games in their leisure timeÃ¢â¬ . (ComputerWeekly, 2001). As education and multimedia within the ages of two to sixteen is of great importance, the education of the older age group should also be considered vital for those willing to expand their skills and acquire the relevant knowledge. This next form of learning via means of multimedia shows how far the technology has developed to cater for this age group. MIT Open Courseware is designed to: Ã¢â¬â ?Provide free, searchable, access to MITÃ¢â¬â¢s course materials for educators, students, and self-learners around the world. ?Extend the reach and impact of MIT OCW and the Ã¢â¬Å"open coursewareÃ¢â¬ concept. There is a wide variety of courses to opt for, from history to nuclear engineering. The site is aimed at self-learners who can log on anywhere in the world and start accessing information on their chosen subject. Lecture notes and assignments are all included just as if they were studying in University. This form of studying is very familiar at present with more than 2000 courses available on the internet reported by 1996. That number has grown progressively and there are courses available today to suit the majority of users whatever their subject. These online courses prove to be significant to those who maybe cannot afford fees towards university or who reside to far from any teaching institute. Ã¢â¬Å"We live in a very rural area. Access to quality educational materials is a 225-mile drive to the nearest library of any significance. Ã¢â¬ (Self Learner MIT, 2005).
Friday, August 16, 2019
Dr. Ron Holt is a dignified socio-cultural anthropologist specializing in applied fieldwork and tribal politics. He currently resides in northern Utah as a professor (among many other things) at Weber State University where he educates young minds on the world of anthropology. The collection of information in this text covers every important aspect of the life of the American Indian Paiute tribe with a main emphasis on their introduction to the Anglo-Americans.Throughout the text Dr. Holt emphasizes many occurrences regarding the co-existence of American Indians and Anglo Americans and despite a few positive outcomes, nearly every influential aspect of the whites is to be understood as a negative one. Dr. Holt vividly depicts the introduction of the white man and makes a valid point in designating who the instigator of the degradation of the Paiutes was. A main emphasis on his writing of this book is to display the truth behind the Paiute struggles and reveal what they went through a s a people. Before the publishing date of this text in 1992 the life of the Paiutes had been vaguely documented.Through personal field work, material in the LDS archives, the Smithsonian Institute and many other sources such as journals and university archives, Dr. Holt was able to obtain a topical and chronological collection of information regarding the entire known existence of the Utah Paiutes since the year they were first witnessed in 1776. In 1981 while teaching at Southern Utah College (now Southern Utah University) Dr. Holt was asked by a local Paiute tribesman to research a potential reservation plan for the Utah Paiutes, an American Indian band of that area. This being an opportunity for Dr.Holt to produce a dissertation for his schooling he took the offer and ultimately produced a one-of-a-kind collection of American Indian knowledge. Through extensive field work and research, material was gathered and organized into data pertaining to the lives of the Paiutes. From this collection the text BENEATH THESE RED CLIFFS was produced. The beginning of the first chapter in this text introduces the reader to a specific way of life for a specific kind of people. After obtaining a feeling of understanding and curiosity about the Paiutes, the text throws the reader into an eternal downward spiral of bad news and depression.As documented, within a very short one hundred and fifty year span, the proud native people of southern Utah were greatly reduced in numbers and transformed from successful hunter-gatherers into beggars and seasonal or part-time workers. The main cause of their depression is seriously attributed to the settlement of the Mormons in the southern Utah area. The Paiutes were a dark skinned people that had a historical religious meaning to the Mormons known as Lamanites. From this historical belief the Mormons decided the Paiutes needed to be educated and Ã¢â¬Å"savedÃ¢â¬ from whatever their previous way of life was.Although the church believ ed they were doing good by taking over control of the Paiutes they conveniently turned a blind eye to the side effects of assimilation and paternalism which ultimately led to the downfall of the Paiute Nation. They were forced to beg for much of what they lived on because their foraging lands were being dominated by grazing cattle and incoming settlers. To add to their list of troubles in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s the Paiutes had to deal with population declination due to New Mexican and Ute slave trafficking.Targeting mainly female children and women, the reproduction rate of the Paiutes was severely crippled. With ratios of nearly two-to-one for men to women, the Paiutes had limited means of procreation. Without women to gather food and mate with the tribe was staring death in the face. After the catastrophic introduction to whites and slavery pre 1900s, a surviving life style for the Paiutes started to become a little more manageable. Ironically during the Great American Depression in th e 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s the Paiutes struggled a little less because the rest of the American nation had it so hard.Through manual labor for the Mormons and seasonal foraging for Pine Nuts and other edibles, the Paiutes survived living one day at a time, but this was to be short lived. In the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s the government decided to Ã¢â¬Å"TerminateÃ¢â¬ all American tribes deemed capable of surviving on their own. Termination was a swift process that was intended to initiate capable American Indians to the stature of a Citizen of The United States of America; the Paiutes were not prepared for the termination bill, but in 1957 it happened anyway.The bill organized a support system for the new way of life that all terminated American Indians would have to assist them with the transformation. The structure of this ingenious plan consisted of three support organizations: The BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) withdrawal office, an educational and vocational training program held by the University of Utah and the BIA relocation program. The Paiutes were now no longer part of a tribe; they were instead Ã¢â¬Å"Citizens of The State,Ã¢â¬ who were subject to state laws, federal taxes and state taxes. After termination the Paiutes were desperate for a substantial income.Their bands had inhabited over nearly 30 million acres of land in areas including four states: Arizona, California, Utah and Nevada; this was without a doubt their most valuable asset. In 1965, after a long demeaning process, the Paiutes agreed to sell 26. 4 million of these acres for 27. 3 cents per acre. With the sale of tribal lands the Paiutes had their substantial influx of money and were able to become a self sustaining people again. The 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s initiated the restoration process which turned the Paiutes back into a recognized American Indian group, but their struggle to recover from termination continues today.
Industrial Revolution Effect replace cheaply unhygienic living conditions, Ã¢â¬Å"Their standard way of life was one of slow starvation. Ã¢â¬ Population increased; on the rise. More people competed for fewer resources, land. Food, Jobs Political & Religious Persecution Eastern Europe Jews could not move beyond the PaleÃ¢â¬ Stripped of their legal rights, (1/3 of Europe. Pop) The Lure of Life in America Newspaper articles & letters painted USA as a Ã¢â¬Å"Lollipops on every cornerÃ¢â¬ American businesses 1 OFF Ã¢â¬Å"Gold on the sidewalkÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬ ¦ Why? Hardships Ã¢â¬â Used all of their savings (Getting from interior lands to coastal port cities was The Journey Across the Atlantic Steamship Accommodations ; 8-14 days; steel hull ships First & second class was unaffordable for MOST immigrants Ã¢â¬â no windows, no ventilation, cramped On Average: Living Conditions in Steerage Uncomfortable at best, inhumane at worst No sunlight, no fresh air, smell unbearable Con tagious diseases ( Cabin Class Replaced steerage after it was removed This is where 1st and 2nd class were accommodated We Have Arrived! Arriving in America 75% of all immigrants Passengers crowded the decks to see their new homeSkyscrapers to the northeast, to the west. Most memorable moment, immigrants seeing Lady Liberty Ã¢â¬Å"l Looked with wonder on this miraculous land of our dreams. Ã¢â¬ Who can quote the plaque at the base of the Statue of Liberty? Ã¢â¬Å"Give your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door. Ã¢â¬ After Just passing the Statue of Liberty, lay the , legal and medical inspections 1st & 2nd Class Inspections 1st & 2nd Class passengers simply prepared forArriving at Ellis Island and entered the USA Steerage passengers Most passengers boarded crowded barges ; Separated into Hope, fear, excitement, uncertainty O n the whole, it was an Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ policy Weed out weak and mentally defective exam and then a more thorough exam Escorted to holding rooms for additional examinations shoulder with chalk Ã¢â¬ for heart problems Ã¢â¬ for hernia Ã¢â¬ for lameness Ã¢â¬ for mental difficult , looking for and Mark your right Upon completion of medical inspections, the Legal Inspections: The Registry Hall After medical inspection, immigrants faced a iron railings was next in tight lines shaped by Match answers from ship manifest with face-to-face answers Name Change? Schoolbooks = Smith The Final inspection Lasted only Asked to confirm answers from manifest If immigrants passed all the inspectionsÃ¢â¬ ¦ They were free to go Ã¢â¬â Ethnic Enclaves Leaving Ellis Island After approval, immigrants sought the next step of their Journey. After arriving in US, New York City, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia By 1920, 75% of foreign-born residents lived in cities Settled in Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ or ethn ic neighborhoods Living Conditions City Tenement Buildings Cities ill-equipped to handle massiveStreets filled with waste due to inadequate sewage systems , run-down, low-rent apartments clustered together in poorest areas of cities Some examples from a city worker in New York City Building with People 3 room apartment people Perils of Tenement Living Toilets in yards; coal stove for heat One social worker could not locate a single bathtub in more than three city blocks in tenement housing 40% of immigrants developed Rural Living Conditions 60% of immigrant (HIGH MIR) Some settled in California, Midwest, Florida Relatively Midwest Blizzards, , dust storms Working Conditions The Immigrant Workforce Mostly American industries were growing rapidly Desperate, wanting leave agricultural Jobs in Europe Worker exploitation, intolerable working conditions work hours per week Dangerous, unsanitary, uncomfortable Improved Standard of Living? Despite horrible conditions, most were better off t han they were in Europe $ per year in Europe, in US for farm laborers.America's Treatment of Immigrants American Natives Native-born Americans viewed new immigrants with fear, hostility, suspicion belief was based on new immigrants posing a threat Deep-seated Americans of northern/western Europe looked down on southern/eastern Europeans British, German, Scandinavian people were considered Ã¢â¬Å"free, energetic, progressiveÃ¢â¬ Slavic, Mediterranean, Jews were viewed as Ã¢â¬Å"historically down-trodden, atavistic [inbred], and stagnant Natives worked to restrict the number of immigrants Literacy tests, preventing Ã¢â¬ Asked for laws restricting number of immigrants allowed to enter 1921, Established for the number of immigrants the US would accept from each country Dialing Bill marked the end of the immigration Ã¢â¬ in US history. Greatest Ã¢â¬ policy, ending the
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Zappos was founded by Nick Swinmurn in 1999. The initial inspiration came when he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t find a pair of brown Airwalks at his local mall. That same year, Swinmurn approached Tony Hsieh and Alfred Lin with the idea of selling shoes online. The company was officially launched in June 1999, under the original domain name Ã¢â¬Å"ShoeSite.com. A few months after their launch, the company's name was changed from ShoeSite to Zappos so as not to limit itself to selling only footwear.In January 2000, Venture Frogs invested additional capital, and allowed Zappos to move into their office space. During this time, Hsieh found that he Ã¢â¬Å"had the most fun with ZapposÃ¢â¬ and came on board as co-CEO with Nick Swinmurn. After minimal gross sales in 1999, Zappos brought in $1.6 million in revenue in 2000 (Chafkin, 2006). Culture of ZapposCulture can be defined as the set of key values, assumptions, understandings, and norms that is shared by members of an organization and taught to ne w members as correct. Your culture or work environment will form based on all of the values, experiences, knowledge, and education of your existing workforce. How people work together and especially, the values of the company's founders or leaders forms the culture you have. Zappos consciously creates and reinforces its corporate culture. The work environment provided for employees won't attract every job searcher and it's not for every employee.The people who fit the corporate culture thrive working for Zappos. In an interview with Rebecca Henry, the former Director of Human Resources for Zappos, two key factors stood out. The company consciously decides what the corporate culture needs to look like and it consciously reinforces and supports that culture through all Human Resources and management work systems. At Zappos.com, they decided a long time ago that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the brand to be just about shoes, or clothing, or even online retailing. It decided that they wanted to build our brand to be about the very best customer service and the very best customer experience.Zappos has a very strong believe that customer service shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be just aÃ department; it should be the entire company. Advertising can only get your brand so far. If you ask most people what the Ã¢â¬Å"brandÃ¢â¬ of the airline industry as a whole is (not any specific airline, but the entire industry), they will usually say something about bad customer service or bad customer experience. If you ask people what their perception of the US auto industry is today, chances are the responses you get wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be in line with what the automakers project in their advertising (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013).At Zappos, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s belief is that if you get the culture right, most of the other stuff like great customer service, or building a great long-term brand, or passionate employees and customers will happen naturally on its own. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s said to believe that your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and your companyÃ¢â¬â¢s brand are really just two sides of the same coin. The brand may lag the culture at first, but eventually it will catch up.SignsOne of the challenges in workplaces today is keeping employees engaged. In the Zappos Family of Companies, the culture enables employees to live and work according to their personal values. Zappos hire based on alignment with their 10 Core Values and fit for the culture. This helps increase productivity, communication, and creativity, while reducing sick time and turnover.Here are five ways Zappos' work environment fosters naturally engaged employees who are passionate about what they do: let employees be themselves, let employees explore their passions and express creativity, empower employees with tools to succeed, provide opportunities for continuous learning and inspire and allow employees to fulfill their higher purpose. These signs of culture show that Zappos donÃ¢â¬â¢t just care about customers, th ey also make sure that their employees are working in a comfortable environment (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013).FactorsThe best thing about the Zappos Family is the unique culture. As the company grows they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to lose that culture, as well as wanted a way to share it with all employees and anyone else who touches Zappos.com. Zappos created ten core values to more clearly define what exactly the Zappos Family culture is (Zappos Corporate. (2009-2013). They are reflected in everything we do and every interaction we have. The core values are always the framework from which make all of decisions.Leader RoleBecoming a leader at Zappos the individual will indeed need to pass certain qualifications. Because of the company high profile and outstanding works, a leader will need to know these few pointers: Deliver Wow Through Service, Embrace and Drive Change, Create Fun and a Little Weirdness, Be Adventurous, Creative and Open-Minded, Pursue Growth and Learning, Build Open and Honest Relationships with Communication, Build a Positive Team and Family Spirit, Do More with Less, Be Passionate and Determined and Be Humble. If he or she has these qualities I think they will suite the leadership duty at Zappos.Decline in ProductEventually, technological advances, changing customer demographics, tastes, or lifestyles, and development of substitutes result in declining demand for most product forms and brands. As a product starts to decline, managers face the critical question of whether to divest or liquidate the business. Unfortunately, firms sometimes support dying products too long at the expense of current profitability and the aggressive pursuit of future breadwinners (Mullins. (2013).An appropriate marketing strategy can, however, produce substantial sales and profits even in a declining market. If few exit barriers exist, an industry leader might attempt to increase market share via aggressive pricing or promotion policies aimed at driving out weaker comp etitors. Or it might try to consolidate the industry, as Johnson Controls has done in its automotive components businesses, by acquiring weaker brands and reducing overhead by eliminating both excess capacity and duplicate marketing programs (Mullins. (2013).Alternatively, a firm might decide to harvest a mature product by maximizing cash flow and profit over the productÃ¢â¬â¢s remaining life. The last section of this chapter examines specific marketing strategies for gaining the greatest possible returns from products approaching the end of their life cycle (Mullins. (2013).